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Safet HadžiMuhamedović, Salazar, Noel B.: Momentous Mobilities. Anthropological Musings on the Meanings of Travel. New York: Berghahn Books, 2018. 191 pp. ISBN 978-​1-​78533-​935-​6. (Worlds in Motion, 4) Price: € 93,80 in:

Anthropos, page 270 - 271

Anthropos, Volume 115 (2020), Issue 1, ISSN: 0257-9774, ISSN online: 0257-9774, https://doi.org/10.5771/0257-9774-2020-1-270

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scheidende. Sie konfrontiert die Teilnehmenden mit Wi‐ dersprüchen, die Einsichten ermöglichen. Jazzperfor‐ manz, als Ritual verstanden, kommuniziert symbolisch und ist selbst marginal gegenüber der Gesellschaft. Im Idealfall, so Salamone, liefert der Jazz Kommentare über gesellschaftliche Zustände, “in which performers and audience enter into a fellowship of complicity in which their mutual construction of reality strengthens their solidarity” (81). Roy Wagner entfaltet eine Analogie zwischen den Konzepten Liminalität und Energie (“The Energy of Liminality”; 85–88), denn “liminality and energy share the same description and can be used interchangeably for that reason” (85). “Energie” wie “Liminalität” sind Modelle, Metapher oder Teil von Sprachspielen, die sich auf eigentlich Unbeobachtbares beziehen und nur an Effekten ex post erkennbar werden. Wagners Text jongliert anspielungsreich mit Quantenphysik, Gödel‐ schen Theorem, der Liminalität des Lachens, Einsteins Raum-Zeit Vorstellung, Kants Ontologie, dem Vierten Laterankonzil und “Edies” Fähigkeit, mit ihren Händen zu heilen. Eine Sache, so Wagner, sei von der Leser‐ schaft der Turnerschen Werke stets übersehen worden, nämlich “the simple and all-encompassing identity be‐ tween energy itself and the liminal gap across which its spark runs, the fact that, as Dylan Thomas put it, even the simplest metaphor can ‘fork lightning’” (88). Der abschließende Beitrag ist dem letzten For‐ schungsprojekt von Edith Turner gewidmet, ihrem eige‐ nen Alterungsprozess (Dionisios Kavadias, Charlotte Dawson, and Edith L. B. Turner, “The Elderly Process. Edith Turner’s Last Fieldsite”; 89–106). In vier Notiz‐ büchern findet sich die akribische Dokumentation ihres unfreiwilligen Inkulturationsprozesses ins hohe Alter und die beginnende Demenz. Festgehalten sind tägliche Routinen ebenso wie Grübeleien. Den hier beschriebe‐ nen Vorgang nannte sie selbst “the elderly process”. Der Dokumentationsvorgang sollte ihr helfen, diese Realität forschend zu verstehen und zu deuten. Das letzte For‐ schungsprojekt von Edie Turner wird somit zu einer Fallstudie, in der die Erforschung des Selbst verknüpft wird mit jener zu einer bislang vernachlässigten rite de passage, als die das Altwerden einsichtsreich beschrie‐ ben werden kann. Die hier vorgelegten Texte sind nicht nur einschlägig interessierten Turner-Exegeten zu empfehlen. Die Frage nach Relevanz und Aspiration der Ethnologie in unse‐ ren bewegten Zeiten zieht sich durch die Lektüre. Die Antworten einer humanistischen Ethnologie im Geiste des Ehepaars Turner sind bedenkenswert. Peter J. Bräunlein (pbraeun@uni-goettingen.de) Salazar, Noel B.: Momentous Mobilities. Anthropo‐ logical Musings on the Meanings of Travel. New York: Berghahn Books, 2018. 191 pp. ISBN 978-1-78533- 935-6. (Worlds in Motion, 4) Price: € 93,80 Noel B. Salazar’s new book adds significantly to the complexity of anthropological questions about human mobility by identifying, through several case studies, the contextualised intersections of imagination, histo‐ ries, politics, and desires inherent to movement. Beyond a theoretical focus on meaning-making through (im)mo‐ bility, there would initially seem to be little connecting tissue between the chapters: they are geographically spread between Chile and its diasporas, the Indonesian archipelago, Tanzania and the Maasai (post)nomadic lives, the ambits of European education and labour, as well as a few (mostly European) pilgrimage sites. Of course, as the book thinks about mobilities, its spatial and temporal scopes gradually become much wider. In spite of this immense challenge, Salazar manages to travel across these apparently detached clusters of mo‐ bilities by tying them into his own life history; it is his own travels, pilgrimages, educational routes, periods of anthropological fieldwork, transnational labour and tourism that bridge the gaps in the overall narrative. The book should not be confused for a memoir, as the author skilfully guides the reader through accumulative (im)mobilities and their transformations in each of these spaces. His analysis is punctuated by vignettes of reflec‐ tions – many, he notes, written “on the move” – which blend “ethnographic” and “autoethnographic” material, clarifying the choice of topics without slipping into a self-indulgent exercise. The format benefits the ambi‐ tious project of discussing mobilities across different so‐ cial contexts, which inevitably leaves room for more complex treatment of the topics covered in individual chapters. Salazar prefaces the arguments with his own histories of movement, noticing that the product may be taken as an example of “slow science” (as the book works through a number of older observations, particularly since 2010). He seeks to understand how boundarycrossings attain individual and shared meanings, but also how they extend/restrict motility, or potential for mobility. Mobilities are “momentous,” he argues, when people attach great significance to them and when they facilitate the accumulation of social capital available for deployment in later life. This definition is wide enough to defy any a priori recognition of “non-momentous” types of mobility. Rather, the meanings of mobilities travel themselves; they may increase/decrease in im‐ portance or be mundane and non-transformational for one person but quite momentous for another. As Salazar delves into contextualised mobilities, some are shown to be deeply disorientational, whereas others fit into vari‐ ous existing matrices. He employs the useful notion of “imaginaries,” which he describes as “socially shared and transmitted representational assemblages that inter‐ act with people’s personal imaginings and are used as meaning-making and world-shaping devices” (11). This concept opens a way for him to think at once about movement in terms of traditions, colonial representa‐ tions, national scripts, forms of resistance, nostalgic projections, and so on. Although the author explains that he has not dealt with involuntary (im)mobilities, examples of forced 270 Book Reviews Anthropos 115.2020 movement, and stillness do surface throughout the book, signalling that “choice” and “constraint” cannot be distilled into discrete categories, as well as that these would be inadequate analytical devices to capture the drama of human movement. For example, in his chapter on Chile, he notices that exile may be an experience of forced immobility and mobility as well as voluntary mobility and immobility. The book consists of two parts “Imagining Mobility” and “Enacting Mobility,” each further divided into three chapters. It is not the most fortunate division, because it roughly translates as the treatment of “ethnographic,” non-European topics (Chile, Indonesia, Tanzania) versus the “home” setting (educational, labour, and pil‐ grim mobilities, mostly within Europe). The first sec‐ tion, the author notes “focuses specifically on how soci‐ eties and cultures other than my own imagine boundarycrossing travels ‘elsewhere”’ (15), whereas the latter one “revisits many of the themes encountered in the first part, but situates them in the lifeworld that I know best: my own” (16). All the chapters, however, clearly relate to Salazar’s “lifeworld(s)” and experiences of movement, and the second part certainly does offer crit‐ ical perspectives on European mobility-driven imagin‐ aries. It would have thus been better to intersperse the chapters between the two parts and disturb the unneces‐ sary division. Most of the chapters merit a review of their own. Chapter 1 is a conversation on the colonial and postco‐ lonial perceptions of Chile as a remote, inaccessible en‐ clave, as well as the later transformation of this imagin‐ ary through the experiences of exile and the formation of Chilean diasporas, the Chilean policy of “engaging with the world” and the dramatic increase in the number of Chileans travelling abroad since the 1990 s. Salazar notices the spatial and temporal dimensions in the Chilean experiences of displacement and attempted re‐ turn. His discussion of the retornados is useful for re‐ searchers of migrant return more generally. In chapter 2, the reader is introduced to various (often co-con‐ stitutive) mobilities in archipelagic Indonesia. Although movement is continuously facilitated by the region’s to‐ pography, Salazar notes, sedentarism was the political and economic ideal of the Dutch colonial administra‐ tion. It worked to make the colonial subjects legible by controlling their mobility. He discusses the “strong mo‐ bility traditions” like those of the Bugis and Makassar peoples of South Sulawesi, or the boat-dwelling people (sea nomads) of the region. For the Bugis, movement across the archipelago was a tradition, but also helped evade certain forms of colonial domination. The author also looks at merantau, a coming-of-age form of travel. Traditionally restricted to men, this form of mobility has been challenged by women whose “increased … mobil‐ ity … can be seen as a struggle for new subjectivity” (57). Thinking of gender subjectivities, I would have appreciated a treatment of mobility and gender beyond the binary. This question is applicable to the entire ar‐ chipelago, but especially to the discussed Bugis, whose gender diversity may appear in interesting connections with their mobility ideals. In chapter 3, Salazar offers a critical reading of the (initially external) imaginaries of the Maasai as the par excellence people on the move. He contrasts these stereotypes to the Maasai (im)mobil‐ ities in practice. As with the Indonesian “boat-dwell‐ ers,” we read that the boundaries of states significantly affected the Maasai, obstructing their nomadic paths, through forced relocation, the loss of grazing rights, forced villagisation, the creation of conservation areas, and so on. Consequently, Salazar notes, many Maasai had become sedentary agropastoralists. In chapter 4, Salazar argues that we need to critically unpack (European) educational mobilities and some of their driving imaginaries; they are tied into politics and depend on access to resources and opportunities. He shows to some extent how educational mobilities work through imaginaries of Europe, but the chapter would benefit from further attention to the routes and political contexts of EU scholarships given to students from “de‐ veloping” countries. He also offers a critique of the policies aiming to standardise and homogenise educa‐ tional skills throughout the EU. In chapter 5, the author is interested in transnational labour practices, particu‐ larly the temporary relocation of “highly skilled” work‐ ers. He notices that a minority of “hypermobile” work‐ ers stand for the ideal of flexible, post-national citizen‐ ship in Europe. EU institutions, he writes, distinguish between “mobility” and “migration” – applying the former to the movement of EU citizens and the latter to those from “developing” countries. In chapter 6, Salazar turns to pilgrimage and similar “transformational” mo‐ bilities, especially through his experience of the Taizé Community in France and Santiago de Compostela in Spain (he also briefly considers pilgrimage in Muslim, Hindu, and Buddhist traditions, in a subchapter titled “Elsewhere too …”). This is a complex, substantial contribution to the an‐ thropology of mobility and, at the same time, a wellwritten, evocative, and accessible treatise. I warmly suggest it to the general reader interested in the tradi‐ tions and transformation of travel, educational trajecto‐ ries, the politics and imagination of movement, transna‐ tional networks, and pilgrimage. The book will also greatly benefit the emerging specialised courses on these matters across the social sciences. Safet HadžiMuhamedović (sh113@soas.ac.uk) Schefold, Reimar: Toys for the Souls. Life and Art on the Mentawai Islands. Bornival: Primedia Editions, 2017. 218 pp. ISBN 978-2-9601375-9-0. Price: € 39,00 The book at hand comes as a toy for the anthropolo‐ gist as well for the general reader who – both of them – will indulge in this precious publication by the leading non-Mentawaian expert on topics Mentawaian. The generous layout of the book as well as the many super photographs add to the pleasure of reading the text, which in this revised and enlarged English edition is (to Book Reviews 271 Anthropos 115.2020

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Abstract

Anthropos is the international journal of anthropology and linguistics, founded in 1906 by Wilhelm Schmidt, missonary and member of the Society of the Divine Word (SVD). Its main purpose is the study of human societies in their cultural dimension. In honor of Wilhelm Schmidt‘s legacy, the cultivation of anthropology, ethnology, linguistics, and religious studies remain an essential component oft he Anthropos Institute – the organizational carrier of the journal.

Zusammenfassung

Anthropos - internationale Zeitschrift für Völkerkunde wird vom Anthropos Institut St. Augustin seit 1906 zweimal jährlich herausgegeben. Ursprünglich als Sprachrohr für katholische Missionarsarbeit geplant, gilt sie heute als wichtige Fachzeitschrift der allgemeinen Ethnologie. Sie behandelt sowohl kulturelle als auch sprachliche Themen in mehreren Sprachen, mit Schwerpunkt auf den Völkern des gesamtamerikanischen und afrikanischen Kontinents.