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Jennifer Hays, Ritterband, Salomé:Tracking Indigenous Heritage. Ju/’Hoansi San Learning, Interpreting, and Staging Tradition for a Sustainable Future in Cultural Tourism in the Tsumkwe District of Namibia. Zürich: LIT, 2018. 291 pp. ISBN 978-​3-​643-​90976-​3. (Legal Anthropology and Indigenous Rights, 3) Price: € 29,90 in:

Anthropos, page 263 - 264

Anthropos, Volume 115 (2020), Issue 1, ISSN: 0257-9774, ISSN online: 0257-9774, https://doi.org/10.5771/0257-9774-2020-1-263

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ler und lokaler Ebene an die deutsche Kolonialzeit erin‐ nert wird. Er unterstreicht, dass das Museum in Afrika mehr sein muss als nur ein Ort des Bewahrens und Aus‐ stellens. Vielmehr gelte die Einbeziehung traditioneller landesüblicher Praktiken als umwälzende Entscheidung, das Nationalmuseum zu afrikanisieren (300). Kamamba beleuchtet den rechtlichen Rahmen des kulturellen Er‐ bes in Tansania und stellt klar, dass große Teile des tan‐ sanischen kulturellen Erbes im Ausland verwahrt wer‐ den. Ein gemeinsames Vorgehen sei deshalb unerläss‐ lich. Im Vordergrund dürfe keine methodische Einbahn‐ straße basierend auf gutem Willen und moralischen Ab‐ sichten stehen (320). Das Kapitel “Kunst und (Re)Präsentation” beschreibt die Einbindung zeitgenössischer tansanischer Künst‐ ler/-innen in das Projekt. Am Ende stellen Mamseri und Reyels die Ausstellung “Living inside the Story” vor, die während des Forschungsprojektes entstanden ist und an verschiedenen Orten in Tansania gezeigt wurde. Lei‐ der kommen die Künstler/-innen selbst nur in sehr kur‐ zen Statements zu Wort. Aber vielleicht war genau das auch ihre Absicht. Äußerst lesenswert ist der Artikel von Sarita Lydia Mamseri. Sie zeigt auf, welche Rolle Künstler/-innen im Narrativ der Nationenbildung Tansa‐ nias spielten und spielen (336 f.) und wie diese heute in‐ stitutionelle Wissensstandpunkte hinterfragen und re‐ flektieren. So schafft sie es, zu verdeutlichen, dass durch einen Austausch mit Kreativen neue Narrative er‐ schaffen werden können (352). Der Sammelband ist eine Bereicherung, nicht nur für diejenigen, die sich über mögliche Wege der gemeinsa‐ men Forschung informieren wollen, sondern auch für Neulinge im Feld. Er illustriert eindrucksvoll die Hin‐ tergründe der Aneignung und die Aktualität des The‐ mas. Offen bleibt aber die Frage nach dem weiteren Verfahren mit den Objekten, die einst als “Kriegsbeute” nach Deutschland transferiert wurden. Fraglich bleibt ebenso, ob sich angesichts der schieren Menge der teils noch deutlich schlechter dokumentierten Sammlungen dieser Standard aufrechterhalten lässt. Christian Jarling (christian.jarling@uni-hamburg.de) Ritterband, Salomé:Tracking Indigenous Heritage. Ju/’Hoansi San Learning, Interpreting, and Staging Tra‐ dition for a Sustainable Future in Cultural Tourism in the Tsumkwe District of Namibia. Zürich: LIT, 2018. 291 pp. ISBN 978-3-643-90976-3. (Legal Anthropology and Indigenous Rights, 3) Price: € 29,90 The book “Tracking Indigenous Heritage. Ju/’hoansi San Learning, Interpreting, and Staging Tradition for a Sustainable Future in Cultural Tourism in the Tsumkwe District,” by Salomé Ritterband is based on a MA thesis in Cultural and Social Anthropology at the University of Vienna. In the thesis, Ritterband describes the cultural performances that the Ju/’hoansi (San) in the Tsumkwe district of Namibia stage for tourists. Her focus is on how “intangible cultural heritage” and traditional knowledge form the basis of tourism in the region, and how people engage with the potential benefits of tourism focused on cultural heritage. This is a worthwhile focus: cultural tourism is impor‐ tant for San communities in Namibia. As Ritterband points out, it is both economically significant for com‐ munities and individuals that engage with it, and it plays an increasingly important role in knowledge mainte‐ nance and transmission. It is also intimately connected with land rights and self-determination, identity, social relationships, economic opportunities, and power rela‐ tionships. There are many puzzles to be solved regard‐ ing the role of tourism in the Tsumkwe district, includ‐ ing how to address the potential for exploitation (which Ritterband acknowledges but does not explore), and how to manage competition among communities and in‐ dividuals for a share of this potentially growing – but ultimately limited – resource. Well-informed advice about how to manage tourism is something that could potentially be useful, and it is an area in need of re‐ search. Ritterband notes that, for indigenous peoples, the enormous global industry of tourism can be either “an empowering tool” or an “exploitative instrument”; her emphasis is on the former and she aligns herself with authors who view cultural tourism as an “opportunity for change, invention and re-identification” (35). She identifies the theoretical context of her research as “the commodification of cultural heritage within indigenous tourism” (121). Her very optimistic approach to this topic is perhaps best summarized in her explanation about how she approaches her subject: “[i]nstead of considering the commodification of indigenous culture in tourism businesses as a threat or with pity, one can analyse these processes as part of ‘normal’, and rather interesting, developments” (128). I wholeheartedly agree with her emphasis on the ways that the Ju/’hoansi are strategically, and often positively, reacting to the op‐ portunities that tourism represents. I appreciated the points she made throughout the book about self-man‐ agement, identifying the ways in which the community is making their own choices. I also applaud her decision to take this perspective, as opposed to knee-jerk decon‐ struction and critique for the sake of it – an all too com‐ mon retreat for researchers working on the complex is‐ sues involving indigenous peoples and development. However, recognition of the positive potential of tourism, and the ways that it can be empowering, should not prevent us from being acutely aware of the potential for exploitation and other negative impacts that tourism can bring. It should also not distract us from the ques‐ tions of power involved, nor from the often quite dire circumstances that they are facing. This community is in the midst of a huge and rapid transition. The Ju/’hoansi and other San in Tsumkwe district are trying to hold on to their land, and are resisting various kinds of incursions; this leads to a sense of insecurity. Normal seasonal variations including droughts are intensified by climate change, with periods of extreme scarcity. Priori‐ ties can fluctuate quickly, depending quite a lot upon Book Reviews 263 Anthropos 115.2020 whether or not people have enough to eat. These kinds of challenges should not be glossed over. There are some good points embedded within this thesis. In particular a couple of observations about the importance of the living culture museums as “educa‐ tion” – both for the outsiders, and as a context for the “passing down of knowledge to the younger genera‐ tions” (177) – touch on some critical points that warrant further exploration within this context. She compares watching the cultural performances to reading a book about the same topic, and points out that one will retain much more information through the performance, even if it is, as she states, a “reproduction of a re-invented past” (though what cultural heritage displays are not?), hinting at some important pedagogical implications of cultural tourism. She does not, however, connect these points with current educational issues in the area. This thesis is based (as many master’s theses are) on only a few weeks of fieldwork, and thus describes activ‐ ities and dynamics observed during a particular slice in time. The activities that people are engaged in, the opin‐ ion they are expressing about a particular project or venture, or – also importantly – what they are eating, can all change, based on seasonal rhythms, social dy‐ namics, or in response to changing circumstances. While some observations certainly reflect ongoing reali‐ ties and relationships, others might be related to cyclical or sudden factors. It is simply not possible to answer the questions that she attempts to, or to make generalized statements, after such a limited time in the field. Fur‐ thermore, given the short time she was in the field, the certainty with which she consigns some of the aspects of San culture to the past is surprising. While they are not trying to pretend that they are living only by hunting and gathering today, and many visible aspects of their culture have certainly changed, many aspects of their culture, knowledge, skills, values, and social structures are still very much in place. This is part of what makes that area extremely important in terms of indigenous land rights in Namibia. This broader context seems to be missing from Ritterband’s account. While reading the thesis, I regularly found myself wishing that the review had been requested before its publication as a book, rather than after. Despite some notable exceptions, the vast majority of social science master’s theses are not publishable as they are. This is not to say that they are not meaningful; ideally, they ad‐ dress important questions and contribute to academic conversations, potentially adding fresh insights. How‐ ever, master’s theses are generally based on an initial foray into field research, which Ritterband admits up front was the case with her. The authors also usually have limited experience with academic writing and analysis. Even good master’s theses do not, generally, make good books. The main difference between a master’s thesis and a book (or an academic article) is submission of the work to a review process that includes peer review and pro‐ fessional editing. This process should entail rounds of revisions (sometimes several), careful fact-checking, and ultimately a thorough professional proofread. This publication does not seem to have benefitted from any of these processes. This is unfortunate, for had it re‐ ceived thoughtful reviews and the opportunity to revisit some of the fundamental questions and conclusions, and to make at least one more trip to the field to check data, the author could have developed a more nuanced and sophisticated argument, and possibly provided some useful recommendations on this critical topic. In a rush to publication, however, glaring errors and omissions and superficial interpretations detract from the poten‐ tially valuable aspects of this work. Jennifer Hays (jennifer.hays@uit.no) Rivinus, Karl Josef: Andreas Amrhein OSB und die Anfänge der Benediktinermission in Ostafrika. Sankt Ottilien: EOS Editions, 2019. 411 pp. ISBN 978-3- 8306-7953-0. (Ottilianer Reihe – Schriften zur Ge‐ schichte und Sendung der Missionsbenediktiner, 16) Preis: € 39,95 “Andreas Amrhein OSB und die Anfänge der Bene‐ diktinermission in Ostafrika” lautet der Titel der 2019 veröffentlichten Studie von Karl Josef Rivinus SVD, die in der “Ottilianer Reihe – Schriften zur Geschichte und Sendung der Missionsbenediktiner” erschienen ist. Mit seiner Untersuchung hat der Kirchenhistoriker den Ver‐ such unternommen, “neben einer biographischen Skizze … ein Segment des umfangreichen Wirkens von Am‐ rhein, nämlich die Entstehung der St. Ottilianer Missi‐ onskongregation sowie deren Wirken in Ost-Afrika von 1888 bis zum Ausbruch des Ersten Weltkriegs” (9) zu behandeln. Sie basiert auf bereits durch Mitglieder der Kongregation publizierten Darstellungen und Quellen zum Leben des Gründers P. Andreas Amrhein (1844– 1927), der als Sohn eines Landwirts im schweizerischen Gunzwil geboren wurde, sowie eigenen Forschungen in staatlichen und kirchlichen Archiven in Deutschland und dem Vatikan. Als die Missionsbenediktiner von St. Ottilien 1884 ins Leben gerufen wurden, waren sie das erste katholi‐ sche Missionshaus der Neuzeit im Deutschen Kaiser‐ reich. Ihre Gründungsgeschichte deckt sich in großen Teilen mit der Biografie ihres Gründers, die allerdings noch nicht geschrieben wurde – zumindest nicht in Form einer umfassenden Monografie. Mit den beiden Bänden “Der Gründer. Schriften von P. Andreas Am‐ rhein OSB (1844–1927)” (2006) und “Der Gründer. Briefe von P. Andreas Amrhein OSB, Teilband I: 1866– 1889” (2010) liegt jedoch eine umfangreiche Quellen‐ sammlung vor, die P. Cyrill Schäfer OSB und Matilda Handl mit ihren ebenfalls in der “Ottilianer Reihe” er‐ schienenen Editionen einem größeren Kreis an Forsche‐ rinnen und Forschern zugänglich gemacht haben. Die Entwürfe, Schriften, Konstitutionen und Briefe können als Grundlage für die Auseinandersetzung mit den An‐ fängen der Kongregation und ihres missionarischen En‐ gagements im heutigen Tansania dienen. Hier setzt Karl 264 Book Reviews Anthropos 115.2020

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Abstract

Anthropos is the international journal of anthropology and linguistics, founded in 1906 by Wilhelm Schmidt, missonary and member of the Society of the Divine Word (SVD). Its main purpose is the study of human societies in their cultural dimension. In honor of Wilhelm Schmidt‘s legacy, the cultivation of anthropology, ethnology, linguistics, and religious studies remain an essential component oft he Anthropos Institute – the organizational carrier of the journal.

Zusammenfassung

Anthropos - internationale Zeitschrift für Völkerkunde wird vom Anthropos Institut St. Augustin seit 1906 zweimal jährlich herausgegeben. Ursprünglich als Sprachrohr für katholische Missionarsarbeit geplant, gilt sie heute als wichtige Fachzeitschrift der allgemeinen Ethnologie. Sie behandelt sowohl kulturelle als auch sprachliche Themen in mehreren Sprachen, mit Schwerpunkt auf den Völkern des gesamtamerikanischen und afrikanischen Kontinents.