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Adelaida Barros Cajdler, Kristensen, Dorthe Brogård: Patients, Doctors, and Healers. Medical Worlds among the Mapuche in Southern Chile. Cham: Palgrave Macmillan, 2019. 228 pp. ISBN 978-​3-​319-​97030-​1. Price: € 74, 89 in:

Anthropos, page 236 - 237

Anthropos, Volume 115 (2020), Issue 1, ISSN: 0257-9774, ISSN online: 0257-9774, https://doi.org/10.5771/0257-9774-2020-1-236

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cher, Landwirtschaft, etc.) vollkommen Zerstörtem ab und entspricht im Ergebnis wahrscheinlich dem globa‐ len Standard nicht besonders hart durch Grabräuberei betroffener Regionen. Der zweite Teil des Buches ist den Abbildungen ge‐ widmet: es sind dies 129 Fotos (aus einem Fundus von fast 3000!). Die Reproduktionsvorlagen waren zum Teil offenbar in mangelhaftem Zustand und sind dann nicht mit optimaler moderner Technik für den Druck vorbe‐ reitet worden. Viele sind daher kontrastarm und flau wiedergegeben, einige trotz Teilzerstörung (Lösung der Fotoschicht, zerbrochene Glasplatten) ausgewählt wor‐ den, wobei das Buch doch gewiss keine Bestandsauf‐ nahme für Fotorestaurierung sein soll. Man fragt sich auch, nach welchen Kriterien die Auswahl der vorzu‐ stellenden Fotos stattfand. Zwar ist fast die ganze the‐ matische und technische Spannbreite von Malers Foto‐ grafien (also auch seine Stereo-Fotos) vertreten: Stadtund Dorfansichten, zum Teil auch mit Menschenan‐ sammlungen, Porträts, Gruppenbilder, Ruinen, Pflan‐ zen, Tiere und archäologische Funde. Es fehlen nur die bedeutenden dokumentarischen Fotos, die Maya-Hand‐ schriften der sogenannten Bücher des Chilam Balam re‐ produzieren und als Grundlage moderner Editionen die‐ ser Quellen gedient haben. Diese werden weder abgebil‐ det noch irgendwo im Buch erwähnt. Die Fotos sind, wie es leider in fast allen Fotobüchern üblich ist, inhaltlich nicht erschlossen. Nicht einmal of‐ fensichtliche Zusammenhänge, wie die Aufnahmese‐ quenz von Abbildungen oder die Identifizierung von Personen und Orten geht über Malers eigene knappe Beschriftungen hinaus. Weitergehende Kontextualisie‐ rungen finden sich allerdings gelegentlich in den Sach‐ beiträgen des ersten Teils. Es hätte sich gelohnt, vor der Veröffentlichung des Abbildungsteiles eine thematische Erschließung vorzunehmen, dann eine sinnvolle Aus‐ wahl zu treffen und alle danach verbleibenden Bilder mit präzisen Erläuterungen zu versehen, anstatt ein un‐ erschlossenes unkontextualisiertes Potpourri zu bieten. So ist dieses Buch, das entgegen des Untertitels “His‐ torische Fotografien aus Mexiko und Guatemala” kein Foto aus Guatemala, der Nachbarepublik Mexikos in der die klassische Maya-Kultur ebenfalls in Blüte stand, enthält, eher als Beitrag zur Biografie Teobert Malers zu sehen denn als Fotobuch. Bücher mit Fotos von Teobert Maler besitzen wir bereits in stattlicher Zahl und in meist besserer Qualität der Abbildungen als sie hier vor‐ gelegt werden. Zu nennen sind “Bauten der Maya” von Gerdt Kutscher am Ibero-Amerikanischen Institut in Berlin 1971 vorgelegt; Andreas Herrmanns Veröffentli‐ chung aus dem Fundus der Sammlung in Detmold (“Auf den Spuren der Maya. Eine Fotodokumentation von Teobert Maler”), die 1992 in Graz erschienen ist, und Malers bereits erwähnte “Península [de] Yucatán”, ein Manuskript im Maler-Nachlass des Ibero-Amerika‐ nischen Instituts, das 1996 wiederum beim Ibero-Ame‐ rikanischen Institut in Berlin erschienen ist. Die Doku‐ mentation guatemaltekischer Maya-Städte, die hier ganz fehlt, war schon an der Wende des 19. zum 20. Jh. in mehreren Bänden unter dem Impressum des Peabody Museums in Cambridge, Mass. (U.S.A.) erschienen. Berthold Riese (briese@uni-bonn.de) Kristensen, Dorthe Brogård: Patients, Doctors, and Healers. Medical Worlds among the Mapuche in South‐ ern Chile. Cham: Palgrave Macmillan, 2019. 228 pp. ISBN 978-3-319-97030-1. Price: € 74, 89 Dorthe Brogård Kristensen’s “Patients, Doctors, and Healers. Medical Worlds among the Mapuche in South‐ ern Chile” makes an interesting contribution to the scarce ethnographic accounts in English of Mapuche medicine and medical pluralism in Chile. It combines careful descriptions of case studies of illness narratives with theoretical insights and generalisations. The book focuses on the social and political implications of how people choose and evaluate different cultural forms of medical diagnosis and treatment: in the case at hand, biomedicine and Mapuche medicine. The question as to why Mapuche medicine is perceived by some patients as more effective than biomedicine is at the core of the author’s theoretical exploration of medical pluralism. The main argument is that medical choices and itinerar‐ ies are not restricted to purely medical issues, but also relate to the broader social and political context. There‐ fore, the author postulates that the choice for Mapuche medicine by both indigenous and nonindigenous people is a way of expressing and transforming a social posi‐ tion of marginality, generating interethnic solidarity bonds among marginal individuals, and expressing dis‐ content with the Chilean public health system and its in‐ herent inequalities. A central idea of this work is that illness narratives relate to collective memories of suffering which have been left out of hegemonic discourses and practices. These collective “repressed” memories remain “hidden” due to the lack of a repertoire of social discourses and practices to address them in hegemonic society. The au‐ thor calls these hidden memories olvidos (forgetfulness) or “unacknowledged realities.” The author describes three olvidos. One is at the heart of the birth of the Chilean Republic: the idea of racial mixture (mestizaje) as an inevitable process of whitening the population, both racially and culturally. The other two are related to Chile’s recent past and concern both the violence per‐ petrated by Pinochet dictatorship (1973–1990) against political opponents, and the imposition of neoliberal re‐ forms during his military regime, leading to increased social inequality. The author hypothesises that medical discourses have “replaced” the olvidos mentioned above and are used as a means of expressing them through medical metaphors such as wekufe (evil spirit) or bicho (bug). These illness metaphors can promote action and provide tools to ex‐ press and transform painful experiences. One interesting case is that of Aberlardo, a man who witnessed his fath‐ er being tortured by soldiers when he was eleven years old. Aberlardo was affected by a bicho, which was “eat‐ 236 Book Reviews Anthropos 115.2020 ing him from inside” due to the action of a witch. The metaphor of bicho is used to describe the alien element inside his body, as well as his experience as a witness of atrocities committed by the dictatorship. Also, the book provides a rationale for the perceived efficacy of Mapuche medicine. First, Mapuche diag‐ nostic categories provide an explanation for the ultimate cause of an illness, which can mobilise the ill person herself and her inner circle to investigate possible solu‐ tions. Moreover, some disease categories, such as evil, posit the cause of an illness in the interaction between a person and her social milieu, facilitating the mobilisa‐ tion of social networks and resources. Second, the au‐ thor proposes that the choice of indigenous disease cat‐ egories is an expression of social marginality and a way of creating interethnic solidarity. In this way, Mapuche and non-Mapuche people resorting to Mapuche medi‐ cine is a statement about a shared marginal social posi‐ tion and the inefficiency of an underfunded public health system. Lastly, Mapuche medicine is perceived as effective due to its capacity to provide an understand‐ ing of illness that resonates with marginal individuals’ experiences (such as migration to the city due to eco‐ nomic hardship). Thus, Mapuche medical discourse can give meaning to painful experiences and can provide tools for the possible transformation of a negative situ‐ ation. The last ethnographic chapter of the book (chap. 7) focuses on one Mapuche healer, José Caripán, and his devotees. This chapter’s argument is somehow different to the rest of the book in that it focuses on a healer and his practice rather than on illness narratives. The main idea of the chapter is that Mapuche medicine strategic‐ ally uses symbols of authority and power emanating from the Chilean State and biomedicine, while, at the same time, opposes the power of the state and state bu‐ reaucratised medicine. The latter is evident in José’s conflicts with taxation authorities, who believe José is unlawfully evading taxes by refusing to declare his earnings from medical consultations. Considering the emphasis that Kristensen places on neoliberal governance and its shaping of medical prac‐ tices, it is surprising that there is no mention of current scholarship on multicultural neoliberalism. Examining the literature on this topic unveils the problems behind the concept of “hidden memories,” as it shows that Lat‐ in American nation-states moved away from the idea of racial mixture to that of indigenous rights based on cul‐ tural difference. Therefore, for this line of thinking, neo‐ liberal governance is more about creating and delimit‐ ing difference rather than whitening indigenous identity, which opens the door for indigenous politics of identity. Another issue that makes the idea of “hidden memories” problematic is the current climate of political turmoil and police repression in Araucanía (though probably less intense when the author conducted her fieldwork between 2004 and 2005). This is an indication of heated political conflict rather than of concealment of counter‐ hegemonic discourses and practices. In fact, in my ob‐ servations while conducting fieldwork in the coastal area of Araucanía between 2016 and 2017, Mapuche medical discourses on diagnosis and treatment refer ex‐ plicitly to a collective history of colonial violence and dispossession, including recent neoliberal reforms. For instance, one of the common reasons why people are understood to be ill is because they have lost the con‐ nection with the ancestors and the territory, leading to moral and spiritual transgressions. The latter is due not only to a colonial legacy of marginalising Mapuche reli‐ giosity and medicine but also to the recent devastation of the forest by timber companies, allowed by neoliber‐ al policies. Thus, Mapuche medicine discourses are ex‐ plicitly politicised and deliberately targeted at ongoing struggles for memory and identity. In a similar vein, the idea that both discontent with neoliberal reforms and recognition of the atrocities committed by the dictatorship have been “forgotten” or “hidden” in Chilean society can be questioned. Chilean society remains divided on these issues, which is differ‐ ent from saying that they have not been widely and openly debated. Therefore, a view that sees memory in Chilean society as a highly contested topic and disputes about hegemony as ongoing and incomplete could have been a more fruitful approach to the issue. Despite some caveats the book is a good and timely contribution to the ethnographic study of Mapuche medical practices and medical pluralism in Chile. It will be greatly enjoyed by social scientists working on indi‐ genous issues both in Chile and Latin America, as well as by medical anthropologists working on medical plur‐ alism, therapeutic efficacies, postcolonialism, and indi‐ genous medicine and witchcraft practices within mod‐ ern nation-states. Adelaida Barros Cajdler (adelaida.barroscajdler@gtc.ox.ac.uk) Lambertz, Peter: Seekers and Things. Spiritual Movements and Aesthetic Difference in Kinshasa. New York: Berghahn Books, 2018. 296 pp. ISBN 978-1- 78533-669-0. Price: $ 130.00 L’ouvrage est structuré en huit chapitres avec une in‐ troduction et une conclusion très riches explicitant clai‐ rement le cadre d’analyse et les concepts utilisés. La bi‐ bliographie, très fournie, offre les références essen‐ tielles, anglophones et francophones, sur la scène reli‐ gieuse africaine contemporaine, les religions japonaises et chrétiennes en Afrique ainsi que plus largement sur l’Afrique Centrale. Peter Lambertz offre ici une étude extrêmement inté‐ ressante et originale consacrée à deux “nouvelles reli‐ gions” (Jap. shin shûkyô) japonaises implantées au Congo, “Sekai Kyûseikyô” (Eglise Messianique Mon‐ diale [EMM] / Church of World Messianity) fondée au Japon en 1935 par Mokichi Okada, et sa branche dissi‐ dente congolaise formée en 2012, le “Temple Messia‐ nique Art de Johrei” (TMAJ). A partir d’une enquête ethnographique de terrain, l’auteur examine le rôle Book Reviews 237 Anthropos 115.2020

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Abstract

Anthropos is the international journal of anthropology and linguistics, founded in 1906 by Wilhelm Schmidt, missonary and member of the Society of the Divine Word (SVD). Its main purpose is the study of human societies in their cultural dimension. In honor of Wilhelm Schmidt‘s legacy, the cultivation of anthropology, ethnology, linguistics, and religious studies remain an essential component oft he Anthropos Institute – the organizational carrier of the journal.

Zusammenfassung

Anthropos - internationale Zeitschrift für Völkerkunde wird vom Anthropos Institut St. Augustin seit 1906 zweimal jährlich herausgegeben. Ursprünglich als Sprachrohr für katholische Missionarsarbeit geplant, gilt sie heute als wichtige Fachzeitschrift der allgemeinen Ethnologie. Sie behandelt sowohl kulturelle als auch sprachliche Themen in mehreren Sprachen, mit Schwerpunkt auf den Völkern des gesamtamerikanischen und afrikanischen Kontinents.