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Frédérique Louveau, Lambertz, Peter: Seekers and Things. Spiritual Movements and Aesthetic Difference in Kinshasa. New York: Berghahn Books, 2018. 296 pp. ISBN 978-​1-​78533-​669-​0. Price: $ 130.00 in:

Anthropos, page 237 - 239

Anthropos, Volume 115 (2020), Issue 1, ISSN: 0257-9774, ISSN online: 0257-9774, https://doi.org/10.5771/0257-9774-2020-1-237

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ing him from inside” due to the action of a witch. The metaphor of bicho is used to describe the alien element inside his body, as well as his experience as a witness of atrocities committed by the dictatorship. Also, the book provides a rationale for the perceived efficacy of Mapuche medicine. First, Mapuche diag‐ nostic categories provide an explanation for the ultimate cause of an illness, which can mobilise the ill person herself and her inner circle to investigate possible solu‐ tions. Moreover, some disease categories, such as evil, posit the cause of an illness in the interaction between a person and her social milieu, facilitating the mobilisa‐ tion of social networks and resources. Second, the au‐ thor proposes that the choice of indigenous disease cat‐ egories is an expression of social marginality and a way of creating interethnic solidarity. In this way, Mapuche and non-Mapuche people resorting to Mapuche medi‐ cine is a statement about a shared marginal social posi‐ tion and the inefficiency of an underfunded public health system. Lastly, Mapuche medicine is perceived as effective due to its capacity to provide an understand‐ ing of illness that resonates with marginal individuals’ experiences (such as migration to the city due to eco‐ nomic hardship). Thus, Mapuche medical discourse can give meaning to painful experiences and can provide tools for the possible transformation of a negative situ‐ ation. The last ethnographic chapter of the book (chap. 7) focuses on one Mapuche healer, José Caripán, and his devotees. This chapter’s argument is somehow different to the rest of the book in that it focuses on a healer and his practice rather than on illness narratives. The main idea of the chapter is that Mapuche medicine strategic‐ ally uses symbols of authority and power emanating from the Chilean State and biomedicine, while, at the same time, opposes the power of the state and state bu‐ reaucratised medicine. The latter is evident in José’s conflicts with taxation authorities, who believe José is unlawfully evading taxes by refusing to declare his earnings from medical consultations. Considering the emphasis that Kristensen places on neoliberal governance and its shaping of medical prac‐ tices, it is surprising that there is no mention of current scholarship on multicultural neoliberalism. Examining the literature on this topic unveils the problems behind the concept of “hidden memories,” as it shows that Lat‐ in American nation-states moved away from the idea of racial mixture to that of indigenous rights based on cul‐ tural difference. Therefore, for this line of thinking, neo‐ liberal governance is more about creating and delimit‐ ing difference rather than whitening indigenous identity, which opens the door for indigenous politics of identity. Another issue that makes the idea of “hidden memories” problematic is the current climate of political turmoil and police repression in Araucanía (though probably less intense when the author conducted her fieldwork between 2004 and 2005). This is an indication of heated political conflict rather than of concealment of counter‐ hegemonic discourses and practices. In fact, in my ob‐ servations while conducting fieldwork in the coastal area of Araucanía between 2016 and 2017, Mapuche medical discourses on diagnosis and treatment refer ex‐ plicitly to a collective history of colonial violence and dispossession, including recent neoliberal reforms. For instance, one of the common reasons why people are understood to be ill is because they have lost the con‐ nection with the ancestors and the territory, leading to moral and spiritual transgressions. The latter is due not only to a colonial legacy of marginalising Mapuche reli‐ giosity and medicine but also to the recent devastation of the forest by timber companies, allowed by neoliber‐ al policies. Thus, Mapuche medicine discourses are ex‐ plicitly politicised and deliberately targeted at ongoing struggles for memory and identity. In a similar vein, the idea that both discontent with neoliberal reforms and recognition of the atrocities committed by the dictatorship have been “forgotten” or “hidden” in Chilean society can be questioned. Chilean society remains divided on these issues, which is differ‐ ent from saying that they have not been widely and openly debated. Therefore, a view that sees memory in Chilean society as a highly contested topic and disputes about hegemony as ongoing and incomplete could have been a more fruitful approach to the issue. Despite some caveats the book is a good and timely contribution to the ethnographic study of Mapuche medical practices and medical pluralism in Chile. It will be greatly enjoyed by social scientists working on indi‐ genous issues both in Chile and Latin America, as well as by medical anthropologists working on medical plur‐ alism, therapeutic efficacies, postcolonialism, and indi‐ genous medicine and witchcraft practices within mod‐ ern nation-states. Adelaida Barros Cajdler (adelaida.barroscajdler@gtc.ox.ac.uk) Lambertz, Peter: Seekers and Things. Spiritual Movements and Aesthetic Difference in Kinshasa. New York: Berghahn Books, 2018. 296 pp. ISBN 978-1- 78533-669-0. Price: $ 130.00 L’ouvrage est structuré en huit chapitres avec une in‐ troduction et une conclusion très riches explicitant clai‐ rement le cadre d’analyse et les concepts utilisés. La bi‐ bliographie, très fournie, offre les références essen‐ tielles, anglophones et francophones, sur la scène reli‐ gieuse africaine contemporaine, les religions japonaises et chrétiennes en Afrique ainsi que plus largement sur l’Afrique Centrale. Peter Lambertz offre ici une étude extrêmement inté‐ ressante et originale consacrée à deux “nouvelles reli‐ gions” (Jap. shin shûkyô) japonaises implantées au Congo, “Sekai Kyûseikyô” (Eglise Messianique Mon‐ diale [EMM] / Church of World Messianity) fondée au Japon en 1935 par Mokichi Okada, et sa branche dissi‐ dente congolaise formée en 2012, le “Temple Messia‐ nique Art de Johrei” (TMAJ). A partir d’une enquête ethnographique de terrain, l’auteur examine le rôle Book Reviews 237 Anthropos 115.2020 qu’exercent ces petits groupes spirituels venus du Japon auprès de la population du milieu urbain très dense de Kinshasa. Cette ville étant dominée par le christianisme, représenté surtout par de dynamiques églises de type pentecôtiste, les enjeux de concurrence religieuse y sont importants pour les adeptes. Ainsi, “… this study aims to contribute to scholarly insights into the religious pro‐ duction of difference, conflict and authority, on the mi‐ cro-social level of contemporary urban Africa” (2). Cette recherche montre à quel point l’intérêt scienti‐ fique pour des objets d’étude minoritaires, des religions non-chrétiennes, est fructueux. L’auteur contribue à un champ de recherche trop peu étudié, celui des “mouve‐ ments spirituels” en marge des “world religions” qui ont retenu toute l’attention des chercheurs en sciences so‐ ciales (surtout le christianisme et l’islam) au détriment de ces petits groupes participant pourtant pleinement aux “dynamics of mimesis and cross-fertilisation” (16) de la bouillonnante scène religieuse africaine pluralisée d’aujourd’hui. Ces groupes minoritaires, critiques du pentecôtisme et de la société comme le sont les deux re‐ ligions étudiées, sont d’excellents révélateurs des en‐ jeux urbains contemporains. Comme l’écrit l’auteur: “… this study goes beyond the internal dealings of EMM and TMAJ. Both these movements serve rather as vantage points from which to consider the bigger reli‐ gious landscape of the city as a continuously recalibrat‐ ing web of associational configuration whose ultimate nodal points are the bodies of practitioners” (16). Cette étude montre bien que ces mouvements spirituels par‐ tagent les mêmes enjeux que les autres religions tant au niveau thérapeutique que social, politique, psycholo‐ gique ou symbolique; ils méritent donc d’être analysés avec les mêmes outils scientifiques que les religions do‐ minantes pour observer les dynamiques culturelles de la pluralisation religieuse africaine. L’approche esthétique, mobilisée par l’auteur, met en lumière les dynamiques locales évanescentes des acteurs religieux pour faire la différence dans un contexte où les corps et les sens sont soumis à des influences spirituelles multiples dans l’espace public: “The aesthetic approach relies on the material turn in the study of religion, placing things and materiality at the forefront in the study of reli‐ gious experience and spiritual presence” (23). Cette ap‐ proche reposant sur l’étude des choses et leurs usages a d’abord le mérite de transcender les appartenances déno‐ minationnelles pour saisir les continuités et les innova‐ tions sans risquer de tomber dans les travers du “denomi‐ national nationalism” qui accorde une légitimité à cer‐ taines croyances au détriment d’autres. Puis, cette ap‐ proche donne au corps et aux sens la première place en terme de “religious difference and authority production”. Enfin, l’approche esthétique rend compte idéalement du raisonnement émique des adeptes congolais, l’auteur ayant pu relever des points communs entre les théories spirituelles et les théories scientifiques sur les esthétiques religieuses, la matérialité et l’agency des choses. Ainsi, “[t]he ethnography presented here offers insights into the use of material things, spiritual technologies and an aes‐ thetic repertoire that generate boundaries, tensions and sometimes conflict” (22). L’analyse de la différence esthétique et de l’autorité entendue comme “the capacity to be the author of one’s life” (21) traverse les différents chapitres de l’ouvrage. Un premier chapitre retrace les trajectoires de “Sekai Kyûseikyô” de sa naissance dans le Japon d’avantguerre jusqu’au Congo en passant par le Brésil et l’An‐ gola. Il s’exporta dans les autres pays du monde dès les années 1950. Avant son schisme congolais de 2012, “Sekai Kyûseikyô” rassemble 37000 adeptes en Angola, pays auquel la structure congolaise est rattachée, et 2500 adeptes en RDC. La prise en compte de l’histoire globale, mais aussi de l’histoire locale, montre l’impor‐ tance de cette dernière dimension pour analyser la trans‐ nationalisation religieuse. Ne recrutant que des Congo‐ lais y trouvant des ressources pour s’épanouir dans leur espace social, géographique et symbolique, l’auteur af‐ firme qu’il s’agit plus d’un mouvement spirituel congo‐ lais venu du Japon qu’une religion japonaise. L’auteur rend visible l’univers de l’invisible congo‐ lais grâce à son analyse des choses à travers le concept d’ “idéologies sémiotiques” qui permet de saisir à la fois comment les gens croient certaines choses et com‐ ment ces dernières leur font ressentir le monde d’une certaine manière. Cette dimension sensuelle est analy‐ sée dans le chapitre 2 en mettant en exergue deux thèmes primordiaux: la suspicion de sorcellerie et le rôle des choses. Dans le milieu urbain de Kinshasa, la suspicion d’appartenir à un mouvement “occultiste” et de s’adonner à la sorcellerie pèse lourdement sur les in‐ dividus – et les religions non-chrétiennes comme “Sekai Kyûseikyô” sont stigmatisées sur ce plan, surtout par les églises chrétiennes born again. L’approche esthétique révèle la nature sensuelle de cet univers de l’“occulte” dans lequel les choses (livre, cravate, parfum …) sont non seulement signifiantes mais performatives créant des frontières entre les mouvements chrétiens et nonchrétiens générant la suspicion. Les chapitres 3 à 8 proposent des ethnographies des principales pratiques de EMM centrées autour de diffé‐ rentes “choses”. Le chapitre 3 montre comment la pra‐ tique des fleurs de “Sekai Kyûseikyô” (re)produit les re‐ gistres de sens locaux des Kinois. La forte contestation qu’ils rencontrent de la part de la population s’explique par le fait que cette pratique des fleurs entre en réson‐ nance avec les répertoires de la “magie” et de l’“oc‐ culte” ayant cours à Kinshasa. Les fleurs, en tant que technologies spirituelles, sont considérées comme vec‐ teurs de la force et de l’intention divine. Elles émettent une lumière qui purifie l’ “atmosphère spirituel” en apaisant les esprits. Le chapitre 4 met l’accent sur des activités rituelles telles que le nettoyage de la ville qui mettent en pratique les relations entre l’espace matériel et les sens, ce qui modèle des attitudes spécifiques vis- à-vis du sol et des déchets (126). Le chapitre 5 examine la technique de guérison johrei ou “prière en action” de “Sekai Kyûseikyô” et son efficacité dans les cas de crise personnelle. Il examine comment “cette technique 238 Book Reviews Anthropos 115.2020 (re)produit et articule Johrei avec les registres de sens locaux liés aux origines du diable et à la restauration de la santé” (146). Vécues comme des miracles, ces “expé‐ riences de la foi” font l’objet de récits publics. Le cha‐ pitre 6 se focalise sur la pratique de johrei mais sans la matérialité afin de rendre présent l’invisible dans leurs corps à travers une atmosphère esthétique. De la même manière, le chapitre 7 analyse comment les prières en japonais produisent une sensation de présence extraordi‐ naire par les sons vocaux. L’auteur aborde la prière non pas en tant que communication avec la divinité, mais en tant que phénomène sonique/ atmosphérique, ce qui per‐ met de comprendre pourquoi ce groupe est condamné par les autres religions. Enfin, le chapitre 8 est consacré au culte des ancêtres et leur signification au quotidien. L’auteur revient sur la multiplicité des modèles eschato‐ logiques à Kinshasa avant d’analyser spécifiquement le culte des ancêtres de “Sekai Kyûseikyô”. Enfin, il sou‐ tient que le concept d’ancêtre mobilisé par le mouve‐ ment spirituel résulte d’une version revisitée de l’idée d’ancêtre au Japon, ce qui le mène à affirmer que ce culte est un orientalisme inversé. Frédérique Louveau (frederique.louveau@ugb.edu.sn) Laruelle, Marlene (ed.): Being Muslim in Central Asia. Practices, Politics, and Identities. Leiden: Brill, 2018. 327 pp. ISBN 978-90-04-30680-6. (Eurasian Studies Library, 9). Price: € 121,00 This volume, born out of the “Central Eurasia-Reli‐ gion in International Affairs” (CERIA) Initiative, hosted at The George Washington University’s Central Asia Program and edited by Marlene Laruelle, includes con‐ tributions from a broad selection of scholars who have sought to enrich our understanding of Islam in Central Asia through in-depth empirical studies. In the introduc‐ tion, Laruelle situates the volume in the more general recent tendencies in the study of Islam in the region. At‐ tempting to counter the widespread tendency among Western political communities as well as Central Asian regimes to “conflate Islamic practices, political Islam, and paths to violence” (1) and to interpret expressions of religiosity as potential signs of radicalization without concern for their local meanings, many scholars have sought to demonstrate the enormous complexity in how Central Asian Muslims from various walks of life to un‐ derstand Islam and what it means to be Muslim; how Is‐ lam comes to matter in state projects, in scholarly stud‐ ies, in public discourses, and in personal lives. The concern to balance overgeneralizations with em‐ pirical studies is also at the heart of this volume taken as a whole. It is structured in four parts, each of which contain three chapters. Part 1, “What Does it Mean to Be a Muslim in To‐ day’s Central Asia?” explores this overall question from historical and sociological perspectives. In chap. 1, “How ‘Muslim’ are Central Asian Muslims? A Histori‐ cal and Comparative Enquiry,” Galina Yemelianova provides us with an overview of the major historical events and developments, which shaped the region and the ways Islam has been understood and practiced there. In chap. 2, “Two Countries, Five Years. Islam in Ka‐ zakhstan and Kyrgyzstan through the Lens of Public Opinion Surveys,” Barbara Junisbai, Azamat Junisbay, and Baurzhan Zhussupov take a point of departure in survey data to identify patterns in religious practice among Muslims in Kazakhstan and Kyrgyzstan, respec‐ tively, concluding that a religious revival is taking place in both countries, but that it is also possible to identify differences which may be attributed to different levels of control of the religious sphere in the two countries. And in chap. 3, “Uzbekness and Islam. A Survey-Based Analysis of Identity in Uzbekistan,” Yaacov Ro’i and Alon Wainer use data from a survey among Uzbek stu‐ dents to argue that the students’ primary identity is with Uzbekistan as a state, and as they, when speaking of their Muslim identity, primarily refer to local customs and traditions. The second part of the volume concerns “Islam, Pol‐ itics, and the State.” In chap. 4, “The Islamic Renais‐ sance Party of Tajikistan. Episodes of Islamic Activism, Postconflict, Accommodation, and Political Marginal‐ ization,” Tim Epkenhans focuses on the Islamic Renais‐ sance Party of Tajikistan and its historical development in relation to the larger society in the past decades, where the Tajik state has become increasingly authori‐ tarian and centralized around the president. In chap. 5, “Power, ‘Original’ Islam, and the Reactivation of a Re‐ ligious Utopia in Kara-Suu, Kyrgyzstan,” Aurélie Biard focuses on two prominent Kyrgyzstani Uzbek Salafi-in‐ spired theologians based in the Fergana Valley and dis‐ cusses how they invoke Islam to legitimize utopian po‐ litical ideologies which fall on fertile ground due to the weakness of the state. She demonstrates how religious debates are inscribed in local power struggles, making it possible to discredit one’s opponent, for example, through labelling him “extremist” or other negative la‐ bels borrowed from official state rhetoric. In chapt. 6, “Islamic Finance and the State in Central Asia,” Alexander Wolters explores the recent history of Islamic finance in Central Asia. He argues that while there was some interest among some Central Asian states in Is‐ lamic finance during the beginning of the global finan‐ cial crisis in 2007, when the political regimes faced po‐ litical crises during the following years, concerns for state security and stability made them less open to the opportunities offered by Islamic finance. The third part of the volume explores “Islam in Evolving Societies and Identities.” In chap. 7, “Visual Culture and Islam in Kazakhstan. The Case of Asyl Ar‐ na’s Social Media,” Wendell Schwab examines how im‐ ages on the social media pages of Asyl Arna, Kaza‐ khstan’s Islamic television network and dominant Is‐ lamic media company in Kazakhstan, promotes Islam as an achievable part of a middle class lifestyle that can provide simple rules for a pious, economically success‐ ful life and a connection to the “numinous” (the divine Book Reviews 239 Anthropos 115.2020

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Abstract

Anthropos is the international journal of anthropology and linguistics, founded in 1906 by Wilhelm Schmidt, missonary and member of the Society of the Divine Word (SVD). Its main purpose is the study of human societies in their cultural dimension. In honor of Wilhelm Schmidt‘s legacy, the cultivation of anthropology, ethnology, linguistics, and religious studies remain an essential component oft he Anthropos Institute – the organizational carrier of the journal.

Zusammenfassung

Anthropos - internationale Zeitschrift für Völkerkunde wird vom Anthropos Institut St. Augustin seit 1906 zweimal jährlich herausgegeben. Ursprünglich als Sprachrohr für katholische Missionarsarbeit geplant, gilt sie heute als wichtige Fachzeitschrift der allgemeinen Ethnologie. Sie behandelt sowohl kulturelle als auch sprachliche Themen in mehreren Sprachen, mit Schwerpunkt auf den Völkern des gesamtamerikanischen und afrikanischen Kontinents.