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Alexander Rödlach, Greifeld, Katarina, Wolfgang Krahl, Hans Jochen Diesfeld und Hannes Stubbe (Hrsg.): Grenzgänge zwischen Ethnologie, Medizin und Psychologie. Für Ekkehard Schröder zum 75. Geburtstag. Curare 41.2018.3–4. 212 pp. ISBN 978-​3-​86135-​845-​9. Preis: € 38,00 in:

Anthropos, page 221 - 223

Anthropos, Volume 115 (2020), Issue 1, ISSN: 0257-9774, ISSN online: 0257-9774, https://doi.org/10.5771/0257-9774-2020-1-221

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Tourism is a flourishing business in Campden, and in‐ comers are driven by investment as well as conservation desires. By controlling the city’s major heritage soci‐ eties, incomers grant or veto altercations that concern historical houses in Campden. Autochthones are not in‐ different about the heritage of the town, but they do de‐ sire amenable homes that modern architecture can grant. Campden reveals itself as a strange city, full of beautiful houses but uncomfortable homes, where renovation de‐ sires equal treason. Perhaps none of the chapters could have benefited more from probing more deeply into the ambiguity of home than Ilana Webster-Kogen’s piece: “Modalities of Space, Time, and Voice in Palestinian Hip-Hop Narra‐ tives.” The author details the recent controversy regard‐ ing DAM, a Palestinian hip-hop band. The group mem‐ bers are known among hip-hop fans as supporters of the Palestinian resistance movement and as harsh critics of the Israeli occupation. With their song “If I Could Go Back in Time,” published in 2012, they break with the trope of resistance. The song tells the story of a young Palestinian woman who is killed by her father and brother because she objects to an arranged marriage. Fans and feminist scholars, such as Lila Abu-Lughod, rushed to condemn the DAM’s thematic choice. The un‐ canny appears in this chapter on two levels. It transpires through the public accusation of DAM as a betrayer of the Palestinian cause and through domestic violence that the song describes. Chapter 6, “My Maluku Manise: Managing Desire and Despair in the Diaspora,” written by Nicola Frost, focuses on the experience of Malukuan immigrants in Sydney. Her interlocutors migrated to Australia volun‐ tarily but then got stranded due to an outbreak of bloody conflict on the island. They remember Maluku as a beautiful island with breath-taking shores, yet they also know that that Maluku no longer exists. Violence washed its splendour away. Australia is a safe but inhos‐ pitable location. Without the option to return to Maluku but being not welcomed in Australia either, these mi‐ grants face heartbreaking difficulties in carving out space in this world for themselves. The final chapter – “Anecdotes of Movement and Be‐ longing: Intertwining Strands of the Professional and the Personal” – originates from Colin Murray, a wellknown Africanist who died in 2013. Arguing for the im‐ possibility of divorcing the personal from the profes‐ sional, he delivers a nice closing for the book. He de‐ tails his professional career characterized by multiple movements in his research field, in South Africa, and in England between different universities. Murray demon‐ strates that home is not constant; it changes throughout our lives. Moreover, he does not fall victim to seeing home only in positive terms. By detailing his dangerous fieldwork and precarious position in academia, he sheds light also on the negative aspect of home that exists alongside comfort. Éva Rozália Hölzle (eva_rozalia.hoelzle@uni-bielefeld.de) Greifeld, Katarina, Wolfgang Krahl, Hans Jochen Diesfeld und Hannes Stubbe (Hrsg.): Grenzgänge zwischen Ethnologie, Medizin und Psychologie. Für Ekkehard Schröder zum 75. Geburtstag. Curare 41.2018.3–4. 212 pp. ISBN 978-3-86135-845-9. Preis: € 38,00 This issue of Curare is a Festschrift honoring the medical anthropologist, psychotherapist, and psychia‐ trist Ekkehard Schröder on his 75th birthday in 2019. He joined in 1970 the Arbeitsgemeinschaft Ethnologie und Medizin (Association for Anthropology and Medicine) and was one of the co-founders of Curare in 1978. The articles and essays, written with a personal and even intimate tone, highlight his invaluable contri‐ butions to the association, the journal, and eth‐ nomedicine, which are located at the intersection of psychotherapy, psychiatry, and medical anthropology, as the title of the Festschrift – “Traversing the Borderland between Ethnology, Medicine, and Psychology” – and his research and publication record indicate. Schröder himself expresses gratitude, in “Danksagung,” for being recognized as a bridge builder between different disci‐ plines. Benoist underscores in “Hommage à un passeur de frontières” the importance of dialogue between different academic disciplines and across national disciplinary traditions for new ideas to emerge. He recognizes Schröder as exemplary in this regard, engaged in the ex‐ change of ideas between culture, medicine ,and psy‐ chology in German and French traditions. Bichmann stresses in “Medizin in Entwicklungsländern aus der Heidelberger Schule” that the South Asia Institute of the University of Heidelberg, one of the schools where Schröder studied, encouraged the dialogue of eth‐ nomedicine and public health with the social sciences and humanities, challenging tropical medicine and eth‐ nomedicine to move beyond a reductionist focus on dis‐ ease symptoms. Bruchhausen’s excellent contribution, “Ethnomedizin zwischen Gesundheit und Kultur. Etablierungsprobleme in der deutschen Medizin,” argues that dialogue and in‐ terdisciplinarity have by and large not been facilitated through institutional adjustments within academia, for example, through the creation of teaching positions that engage multiple disciplines, but primarily by the inspir‐ ing leadership of individuals, particularly those with du‐ al professional identities, such as Schröder, who break out of institutional silos and professional shackles and build bridges between disciplines. Such engagement re‐ quires a long-term commitment. This might be the rea‐ son for including Deimel’s short ethnographic piece, “Die Seele zum Laufen bringen,” that describes the meaning of long-distance running among the Mexican Rarámuri. In their cosmology, long-distance running is associated with the souls of the deceased “running” into heaven to be united with their ancestors. If they are un‐ able to reach heaven, they remain among the living, causing illness and other misfortune. Diesfeld’s essay, “Ekkehard Schröder, mein Freund und Weggefährte,” Book Reviews 221 Anthropos 115.2020 recognizes Schröder as an effective bridge builder be‐ tween anthropology and medicine during several decades and credits him with the resulting synergy that led to innovative broad approaches for understanding health and illness. Grauer meticulously documents in “Begegnung – Verflechtung – Erinnerung” that his fair‐ ly recent encounter with Schröder at the Anthropos In‐ stitute is not their only connection and that “bridges” between the Institute and Schröder already existed decades ago through one of Schröder’s mentors, Katesa Schlosser. Grauer further argues that both Schlosser and Schröder did not follow widely held perceptions of the opposition between anthropologists and missionaries; both had mutually benefitting exchanges with mission‐ ary anthropologists at the Anthropos Institute. In anoth‐ er contribution with a historic focus, “Heldengeschich‐ ten aus der Konquista,” Greifeld refers to Schröder’s professional identity as a psychiatrist, calling him a so‐ journer between different systems of meanings and ac‐ tively involved in interpreting evidence within its broader context. She argues that meanings need to be contextualized within broader historical, economic, and power dynamics and illustrates this understanding through two Basque conquistadores from the 1600 s. One is presented in the archival record as a noble indi‐ vidual because of his loyalty to the Spanish Crown, while the other is portrayed as a villain because he chal‐ lenged the Crown and Castilian understandings of their superiority. Haller’s interview with Schröder, “German Anthro‐ pology,” presents him as a warm-hearted and intellectu‐ ally curious individual who views ethnomedicine as pri‐ marily a social science discipline that must include a critical analysis of Western medicine. Hoffmann’s “75 Jahre Ekkehard Schröder. Ein kleiner Gruβ,” acknowl‐ edges his varied interests and recognizes him as a bril‐ liant anthropologist and ethnopharmacologist as well as an excellent photographer of material culture and effect‐ ive psychiatrist and psychotherapist. In light of massive migration movements into Europe, Kaiser underscores in “Transkulturelle Betrachtungen im Umgang mit Flüchtlingen,” the need for individuals like Schröder to further our understanding of the health of the “stranger,” including mental health. Koch takes on a similar theme in “Migranten aus der Türkei in Deutschland im Spiegel von Kunst und Kultur,” arguing that the arts can be helpful to explore and understand social and cultural dy‐ namics of migration, reminding us of Schröder’s inter‐ est in the arts, particularly ethnomusicology. Not related to migration of people but more to the movement and integration of ideas in a globalized world, Nomi Krahl argues in “Romantic Ayurveda” that Ayurveda could easily be integrated into the German health care land‐ scape because of the latter’s emphasis on therapeutic pluralism and popular German ideas of medical treat‐ ment going hand in hand with nature. Wolfgang Krahl, a psychiatrist and psychotherapist like Schröder, describes the social and cultural changes of the last decades in “Zeitenwandel,” that provide the larger context of their professional and intellectual engagement to which both responded. Kressing highlights in “Quo Vadis, Global Health?” themes that highlight global health’s associa‐ tion with ethnomedicine, ethnopharmacology, and biomapping. Kutalek convincingly argues in “Medizin‐ anthropologie in der medizinischen Aus- und Weiterbil‐ dung” that while Schröder emphasizes the relevance of medical anthropology for medicine, medical anthropol‐ ogy is generally insufficiently integrated in medical cur‐ ricula and limited to a few obvious topics. However, its relevance for the practice of medicine is increasingly recognized by students and informal learning through interactions between faculty and students outside the classroom complements its lack in the curricula. Luig discusses in “Talking about Violence” the polit‐ ics of remembrance of the Khmer Rouge violence in Cambodia and argues that, for some, the narration of a common victimhood gives emotional protection and in‐ tegrates the past into the present. While Buddhists tend to favor disengagement in order to find personal peace, non-profit organizations engage with the past critically and emotionally in order to find peace. Sabernig points out in “Neurological Metaphors in Tibetan Medical Language” that Tibetan medicine, like other medical traditions, borrows terms from social, political, and ev‐ eryday life, religion and other medical systems. Sax ar‐ gues in “Culture Bound Syndromes Reconsidered” that not only culture bound syndromes, defined as mental disorders that are limited to a particular cultural setting, but all syndromes are somewhat culture-bound. Thus, a “naturalist” emphasis on organic causes of disorders has to be complemented with a “culturalist” approach that considers patients within their social and cultural con‐ text where disease is first recognized, diagnosed, and treated according to local understandings. Strauss and Kurz juxtapose in “Framing Experiences” contradictory modes of conceptualizing dissociative experiences in terms of religious-spiritual idioms of distress, diagnostic psychiatric categories, and economic and political meanings. Stubbe discusses in “Über ein frühes Bild des brasili‐ anischen Urwaldes von Johann Moritz Rugendas” the drawings of Rugendas of geographical, botanical, zoo‐ logical, demographic, ethnographic, and statistical facts of Brazil in terms of the Romantic era that expresses a desire for a close connection with nature and describes Rugendas as an example of the cosmopolitan German, such as Schröder. Van der Geest reflects in “Das Ewige Gestern” on an aspect of the experience of aging, fre‐ quently talking about the good old times – “the Eternal Yesterday,” common across cultures, and illustrates his thoughts with his conversation with Schröder. Verwey, recognizing Schröder’s ability to integrate varying per‐ spectives, argues in “Würde in Bedrängnis – Wenn der Körper sich der politischen Ökonomie entzieht” that our perception and understanding of a dying person, can be analyzed by drawing on postcolonial studies, such as the work of Achille Mbembe, that assist in explaining what is considered a life worthy to live, such as the life 222 Book Reviews Anthropos 115.2020 of an individual living with terminal illness. Vivod’s ethnographic contribution, “Šojmanka,” describes in rich detail the phenomenon of individuals who can com‐ municate with supernatural beings in relation to inherit‐ ed holistic beliefs about human health and its connec‐ tion to nature and divine beings. The articles and essays in this Festschrift recognize Schröder’s academic and professional accomplishments, his impact on ethnomedicine, anthropology, medicine, and related fields and celebrate him as a bridge builder between disciplines as well as a kind and supportive colleague and friend. His ability to connect with col‐ leagues on a personal level cannot be separated from his scholarly and professional achievements. In my experi‐ ence, relationships and friendships actually facilitate valuable insights and lead to new innovative directions. This is something to recognize as important at a time when competition seems to be the standard in academia, colleagues are often perceived as dangerous rivals, and self-interested “climbers” tend to be the public face of academic and professional fields. The Festschrift re‐ minds us that relationships and friendships are impor‐ tant for furthering scientific knowledge and professional applications. Alexander Rödlach (alexanderroedlach@creighton.edu) Hagberg, Sten, Ludovic O. Kibora et Gabriella Körling (dir.): Démocratie par le bas et politique muni‐ cipale au Sahel. Uppsala: Uppsala Universitet, 2019. 210 pp. ISBN 978-91-506-2736-7. (Uppsala Papers in Africa Studies, 4) Prix: € 16,00 Issu d’un colloque organisé à Bamako en mars 2014, cet ouvrage collectif fait le point de presque vingt an‐ nées d’observations dans des communes du Mali, du Burkina Faso et du Niger. Il mérite la lecture pour plu‐ sieurs raisons. D’abord parce qu’il traite du dernier ava‐ tar des transferts de modèles du Nord vers le Sud – la décentralisation – après qu’elle ait pris une teinte démo‐ cratique à partir des années 1990. Il était donc intéres‐ sant d’enquêter au plus près du terrain pour vérifier si les institutions, les ressources et les citoyens avaient bien été mobilisés autour de cet objectif. Ensuite, le regard porté sur cette “démocratie par le bas” et sur les politiques municipales dans ces trois pays du Sahel sort des grilles d’analyse habituellement utili‐ sées en la matière, puisqu’il vient essentiellement de chercheurs qui non seulement ne sont pas français mais n’appartiennent pas (forcément) aux écoles de pensée françaises. La plupart des articles sont écrits en bi‐ nômes, et tous nous sont livrés en français ce qui facilite l’accès à une approche étrangère dont nos universités ne sont guère familières. Enfin, les auteurs assument justement cette démarche émic/étique, inspirée des travaux du linguiste Kenneth Pike et plus fréquemment utilisée chez les Anglo- Saxons qu’en France pour les recherches en anthropolo‐ gie culturelle, même si Jean-Pierre Olivier de Sardan y fait parfois référence pour distinguer le point de vue du sujet de celui de l’observateur. Les douze études ici rassemblées sont donc “une sorte d’ethnographie municipale” portant sur des com‐ munes localisées avec précision sur une carte des trois pays (10 s.), et visant à approfondir le concept de “dé‐ mocratie par le bas” qui sert de fil rouge aux travaux des auteurs. Dans l’introduction générale, Sten Hagberg propose en trois grands points majeurs une excellente synthèse de l’ensemble des travaux (les anciens ou nou‐ veaux pouvoirs, le sens du politique, les services publics comme “substance démocratique”), et l’on regrette que l’ouvrage n’ait pas repris ce plan. Et il manque une conclusion générale qui aurait peut-être listé les ques‐ tions en suspens, car il y en a. Du chef traditionnel au maire: Dans le processus de décentralisation et de démocratisation qui a recouvert le continent africain, la question des nouveaux pouvoirs est centrale: comment s’est effectué le passage de la tra‐ dition à la modernité, sachant que les territoires étaient maillés par une organisation coutumière ancienne (pré‐ coloniale) à laquelle s’est substitué un nouveau modèle de gouvernance? Il semble apparaître – mais l’échan‐ tillonnage est insuffisant – que certains nouveaux maires n’étaient autres que les descendants des chefs traditionnels. Il s’agissait d’un élément de légitimité im‐ portant car ils étaient aussi “maîtres de la terre”. Illustrant le “retour du pouvoir à la maison”, l’en‐ quête monographique effectuée dans la localité ma‐ lienne de Youwarou (dans le delta intérieur du Niger), malgré des données chiffrées anciennes (2007–2009), souligne que l’invention du “local” fut antérieure à la décentralisation et montre que les autorités coutumières ont su se mouler dans le multipartisme qui a émergé dans les années 1990 pour conserver le pouvoir (“‘À Bamako, on sait au moins que Youwarou existe mainte‐ nant.’ Invention du ‘local’, élites politiques et décentra‐ lisation de l’État au Mali”, par Marie Deridder, 145– 162). L’un des théâtres dans lesquels se mêlent et se confrontent autorités traditionnelles et nouveaux pou‐ voirs est le marché à bétail (“Le marché à bétail. Une vitrine des oppositions locales au Niger”, par Mohamed Moussa, 103–115). Dans la commune de N’Gonga, au Niger (comme dans toute la zone sahélienne), cette acti‐ vité économique porte un fort enjeu financier et son contrôle est politiquement déterminant, de telle sorte qu’on se le dispute à l’occasion des élections munici‐ pales. Parallèlement à cette opposition, on bute inévitable‐ ment sur la question de la “société civile”, dont la défi‐ nition exacte reste à construire mais qui, par le jeu subtil du changement d’échelle, est ici placée sous l’éclairage d’une étude de cas (“La société civile dans l’espace communal de Mountougoula au Mali”, par N’gna Trao‐ ré, 179–193). La “société civile”, sous ses multiples as‐ pects, est l’un des éléments de la transition entre les pouvoirs des chefferies et ceux des élus municipaux. Ces derniers sont donc issus d’élections, du moins de‐ Book Reviews 223 Anthropos 115.2020

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Abstract

Anthropos is the international journal of anthropology and linguistics, founded in 1906 by Wilhelm Schmidt, missonary and member of the Society of the Divine Word (SVD). Its main purpose is the study of human societies in their cultural dimension. In honor of Wilhelm Schmidt‘s legacy, the cultivation of anthropology, ethnology, linguistics, and religious studies remain an essential component oft he Anthropos Institute – the organizational carrier of the journal.

Zusammenfassung

Anthropos - internationale Zeitschrift für Völkerkunde wird vom Anthropos Institut St. Augustin seit 1906 zweimal jährlich herausgegeben. Ursprünglich als Sprachrohr für katholische Missionarsarbeit geplant, gilt sie heute als wichtige Fachzeitschrift der allgemeinen Ethnologie. Sie behandelt sowohl kulturelle als auch sprachliche Themen in mehreren Sprachen, mit Schwerpunkt auf den Völkern des gesamtamerikanischen und afrikanischen Kontinents.