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Barbara Glowczewski, Burke, Paul: An Australian Indigenous Diaspora. Warlpiri Matriarchs and the Refashioning of Tradition. New York: Berghahn Books, 2018. 237 pp. ISBN 978-​1-​78533-​388-​0. Price: $ 120.00 in:

Anthropos, page 200 - 201

Anthropos, Volume 115 (2020), Issue 1, ISSN: 0257-9774, ISSN online: 0257-9774, https://doi.org/10.5771/0257-9774-2020-1-200

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im 17. Jh. im Niedergang befand, hatte zunächst der Markt als Quelle für soziales Kapital an Bedeutung ver‐ loren. Nachdem das kleine Sultanat Patani weiterhin mehrmals von Siam militärisch geschlagen worden war, wobei schließlich der Palast im Jahre 1786 vernichtet wurde, blieb damit nur noch die Moschee und die geisti‐ ge Elite der islamischen Schriftgelehrten für die Status‐ reproduktion in der Oberschicht übrig. Bradley argu‐ mentiert, dass nach dem wirtschaftlichen und politi‐ schen Untergang des Sultanats Patani eine “soziale Lee‐ re” an der Spitze der Gesellschaft entstanden war, die erst allmählich im Laufe des 19. Jh.s von islamischen Schriftgelehrten, Lehrern und Kopisten gefüllt wurde. Während die nördliche Thai-Welt sich nach Bangkok orientierte, richtete sich die Bevölkerung in der südli‐ chen Halbinsel zunehmend nach Mekka. Es ist diese so‐ ziale Dynamik, die Bradley für die Entfaltung der trans‐ ozeanischen Gruppe von islamischen Schriftgelehrten aus Patani in Mekka als ausschlaggebend betrachtet. Verschiedene Männer mit der Herkunftsbezeichnung al- Faṭānī (d.h. “aus Patani”) in ihren Namen verfassten im Herzland des Islams richtungsweisende Texte für ganz Südostasien. Bradley weist darauf hin, dass in Biblio‐ theken mehr als 1.300 Handschriften von Schriftgelehr‐ ten aus Patani aufbewahrt werden, die im 19. und 20. Jh. produziert wurden. Diese Werke sind vor allem in der malaiischen Sprache verfasst worden und weisen eine große Bandbreite unterschiedlicher islamischer Wissensbereiche auf: “legal tracts, prayer manuals, mystical treatises and poetry, guides to Arabic grammar, numerous Malay translations of well-known Arabic works, and the first written forms of local oral traditi‐ ons” (3). Mit diesem Buch bietet Bradley eine fundierte Be‐ schreibung und Analyse der islamischen “Patani-Rich‐ tung”: Mit seiner Erforschung malaiischer Handschrif‐ ten dieses Korpus leistet er Pionierarbeit, wobei vor al‐ lem auf die Rolle des produktiven Autors Dā’ūd bin ‘Abd Allāh al-Faṭānī (1769–1847) eingegangen wird. Dahingegen wird eine andere Figur, nämlich Aḥmad bin Muḥammad Zayn al-Faṭānī (1856–1908), bloß dreimal erwähnt (S. 14, 128, 139), obwohl er für die Verbreitung der Schriften in die südostasiatische In‐ selwelt von großer Bedeutung gewesen ist. Mit ihm tritt jedoch eine andere, moderne Phase ein, in der das Zeit‐ alter der handschriftlichen Überlieferung des Wissens vom Zeitalter des Buchdrucks abgelöst wurde: Aḥmad bin Muḥammad Zayn al-Faṭānī war nämlich ab der Mit‐ te der 1880-er hauptverantwortlich für die malaiische Presse in Mekka, wobei er Werke seiner Landsleute be‐ vorzugte. Das Erbe der Patani-Richtung bleibt auch im 21. Jh. noch immer präsent: Nachdrucke sind bis heute in Südostasien leicht zu bekommen und finden ihre Le‐ serschaft in traditionalistischen Kreisen. E. P. Wieringa (ewiering@uni-koeln.de) Burke, Paul: An Australian Indigenous Diaspora. Warlpiri Matriarchs and the Refashioning of Tradition. New York: Berghahn Books, 2018. 237 pp. ISBN 978- 1-78533-388-0. Price: $ 120.00 The notion of diaspora is an original and relevant way to address indigenous Australian issues. Benjamin Smith referred to the Aboriginal diaspora of people who were forcibly displaced into missions and reserves built in Queensland outside of the traditional territory of their respective language groups. Burke’s book, based on years of ethnographic fieldwork, shows another form of diaspora resulting from the choice of some Warlpiri people from Central Australia to live away from the set‐ tlements, which were established on their land or close by in the 1940 s–50 s. Burke’s argument is that much of the permanent migration “has the character of an escape from the intensity of settlement life as it developed through the second half of the twentieth century” (16). His brief Warlpiri history shows that thanks to “regional interconnections … [and] tribal cosmopolitanism … some local Aboriginal people came to know relatively distant unfamiliar languages, kinship systems and ritu‐ als” (17). In that sense. the semi-nomadic hunter-gather‐ ing Warlpiri life was not limited to their own territory (600 km N/S x 300 km E/W), a process that was intensi‐ fied with colonization. Burke’s compelling ethnography challenges some academic assumptions of Warlpiri parochialism. Written records and oral history attest of Warlpiri mi‐ grations during the gold rush waves between 1880– 1924 and after the 1928 Coniston massacre. Many Warlpiri families forced by draught gathered at food de‐ pots in the Granites, Tanami, and Philip Creek, or looked for work in cattle stations (Gordon Downs, Wave Hill, Waterloo) and towns (Tennant Creek, Alice Springs). Map 1.3 (20) shows, that in 1957, 480 Warlpiri lived in Yuendumu, 130 in Lajamanu, and hun‐ dreds in small places of their country or in stations around. In the 1960 s, about 90 percent of the children attended settlement schools or boarding schools, some students would train further away and come back with successful jobs: school, health clinic, council office, Baptist church, and later as police aid. After the Warlpiri won a land rights claim in 1978, they gained self-management of their communities and culturally in‐ vested in ritual and return to the country with the estab‐ lishment of remote outstations run with solar power. Warlpiri language remained the first spoken. Since the 1980 s–90 s, the world success of acrylic painting promoted through community art centers and massive input of mining royalties brought a flow of re‐ sources. Money is usually gambled and spent by the winners, creating many conflicts between families. Al‐ cohol-related problems, domestic violence, lots of early deaths due to car accidents, and poor health expanded with a certain deference to White authority, and a low attendance at school. The NT “Intervention” (National Emergency Response Act 2007) drastically changed life in the settlements, while their management was central‐ ized in towns and the bilingual program dropped for five years. In September 2010, after a young man was 200 Book Reviews Anthropos 115.2020 stabbed at the Warlpiri camp in Alice Springs, the vic‐ tim’s family took violent revenge at the family of the perpetrator at Yuendumu: a riot with axes and machetes, cars torched, and houses ransacked. One hundred Warlpiri temporarily relocated to Adelaide. The Ade‐ laide diaspora returned to Yuendumu for fighting. A few women escaped from forced marriage or being beaten by in-laws by going to Darwin. Some take refuge in the “long-grass” fringe camps where they drink and have sex sometimes with non-Aboriginal squatters. The section on “Romantic Love and Inter-Racial Marriage as Vectors of Indigenous Diaspora” (79–82) reflects on the decline of promised marriages and the rise of non-Warlpiri spouses, mostly men. Burke “be‐ came aware of 24 long-term inter-racial relationships in the Warlpiri diaspora” (79), that is 3 percent of mar‐ riages. Some White men working in settlements eloped with married women to have a socially integrated life in town. Maps 1.4 and 1.5 (49 f.) show the location of Warlpiri migrants in all of Australia: Yuendumu (720), Lajamanu (650), Alice Springs (370), Adelaide (108), Katherine and Binjari camp (132), Darwin (52); differ‐ ent towns of WA (79), especially in the Kimberley, a vast region to which Warlpiri people were traditionally connected through trade networks. According to Burke, semiprofessional careers are the main vector of migrations:.“Bi-cultural adepts” get away from the “density of relationships” (88) and kin demands so that the performance of their jobs is easier. But “For those invested in the concept of the settle‐ ments as a community with a history, pride and reputa‐ tion to protect, such departures, and even more so other departures which had no plausible rationale, were an unsettling development” (89), because many critical jobs are to be filled, positions on boards and ongoing community and political issues to respond to. For some, too many deaths “made the settlement a sad place to be” (91); as town camps were segregated from the white population, it “also encouraged this initial congregation of kin” (92). From 2009 till 2013, 12 percent (3,120) of Warlpiri population was in Alice Springs (101). Burke’s chapter 3, “Making Alice Springs a Warlpiri Place,” is devoted to Dulcie who joined her daughter to look after her grand-children, while experimenting in friendship with White people: “[Dulcie] was readily coopted by political activists to protests against the Inter‐ vention and enjoyed travelling to … protest camps in Canberra. With my assistance she would make side trips to sell a painting or raid the bountiful metropolitan op shops (charitable thrift stores) before returning to her official protest duties. These included a meeting with the local member of the parliament, Warren Snowdon, where she upbraided him for ‘doing the wrong thing’” (103 f.). The support of other Warlpiri women in Alice Springs turns them into “matriarchs.” Some are mem‐ bers of the Baptist congregation that take them out. Their reputation as good hunters gives them the oppor‐ tunity of paid work as hunting guides for visiting school groups and Aboriginal nursing home groups. They maintain their Warlpiri language, participate in demand sharing networks, organize traditional mortuary rituals and funerals. Most Warlpiri people continue to believe in the ubiquity and efficacy of sorcery and the need for such healers, so after Dulcie found out after the death of one woman about her “illness on some return visits. She took those illnesses as proof of sorcery against her by Warlpiri people at Yuendumu” (123). Chapter 4, “Warlpiri Women of Adelaide” (with sub‐ chapter “ʻBarbara’ and ʻEmily’”) is dedicated first to a lady with whom Burke worked as a guide in 2010: she has been in Adelaide for 20 years to look after grandchildren in 3 households which are “like the model of a matrifocal household that arose out of Caribbean ethnography” (135). There the Warlpiri women use mo‐ bile phones to participate in settlement life. There was one woman from Mount Allen who lived in Alice Springs as a semiprofessional artist before moving to Adelaide with a white boyfriend. Natalie is “free as a bird” (139), wearing a mini-skirt and pink leggings, she had relations with several White men, stubbed one who put a restraint order, but after cancer treated with a chemo, she got involved in Christian practices. One ma‐ trifocal household hosted children from Ali Curung for school and promoted in “two laws talk” (141). There were also drinking households, with one drug addicted woman. Burke notices that pan-Warlpiri solidarity and cohesion is weaker in Adelaide than in Alice Springs. “Emily,” after hosting refugees of the 2010 feud who damaged her house, chose to return to Yuendumu. The last chapter, “Ambivalent Homecomings and the Politics of Home and Away,” analyzes the disappoint‐ ment of some returnees. They realize that they are not always welcome, as their homelands have changed: “traditional cultural practices seem on return narrowminded and old-fashioned” (155). Some return to coun‐ try for the ngangkayi healers, to collect favored bushmedicines, also for the initiation of boys, royalty meet‐ ings, funerals. Burke concludes, “that the permanent Warlpiri migrants to towns and cities will continue to be a significant part of the Warlpiri story, not a temporary phenomenon” (206). Nevertheless, the Warlpiri lan‐ guage remains one of Australia’s strongest language with thousands of speakers and their attachment to land is strong. Barbara Glowczewski (barbara.glowczewski@gmail.com) Caro Sánchez, Hortensia: El subversivo principio femenino. Pombagira en los cultos populares brasileños. Cádiz: Servicio de Publicaciones de la Universidad de Cádiz, 2018. 245 pp. ISBN 978-84-9828-715-8. (Mono‐ grafías – Ciencias Sociales, Políticas del Compartami‐ ento y de la Educación, 11). Precio: € 20,00 Basada en su tesis doctoral, la etnografía de Horten‐ sia Caro Sánchez analiza la figura de Pombagira, un es‐ píritu exuberante, desmesurado, ambiguo, patrono de las bailarinas, las prostitutas o las libertinas que renun‐ Book Reviews 201 Anthropos 115.2020

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Abstract

Anthropos is the international journal of anthropology and linguistics, founded in 1906 by Wilhelm Schmidt, missonary and member of the Society of the Divine Word (SVD). Its main purpose is the study of human societies in their cultural dimension. In honor of Wilhelm Schmidt‘s legacy, the cultivation of anthropology, ethnology, linguistics, and religious studies remain an essential component oft he Anthropos Institute – the organizational carrier of the journal.

Zusammenfassung

Anthropos - internationale Zeitschrift für Völkerkunde wird vom Anthropos Institut St. Augustin seit 1906 zweimal jährlich herausgegeben. Ursprünglich als Sprachrohr für katholische Missionarsarbeit geplant, gilt sie heute als wichtige Fachzeitschrift der allgemeinen Ethnologie. Sie behandelt sowohl kulturelle als auch sprachliche Themen in mehreren Sprachen, mit Schwerpunkt auf den Völkern des gesamtamerikanischen und afrikanischen Kontinents.