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Ziyoung Park, Hosin Lee, Seungchon Kim, Sungjae Park, Dasom Jung, Seunghee Son, Yoonwhan Kim, Hyewon Lee, Organizing Performing Arts Records of Korean Traditional Music as Linked Open Data in:

International Society for Knowledge Organziation (ISKO), Marianne Lykke, Tanja Svarre, Mette Skov, Daniel Martínez-Ávila (Ed.)

Knowledge Organization at the Interface, page 348 - 356

Proceedings of the Sixteenth International ISKO Conference, 2020 Aalborg, Denmark

1. Edition 2020, ISBN print: 978-3-95650-775-5, ISBN online: 978-3-95650-776-2, https://doi.org/10.5771/9783956507762-348

Series: Advances in Knowledge Organization, vol. 17

Bibliographic information
Ziyoung Park – Hansung University, South Korea Hosin Lee – Hansung University, South Korea Seungchon Kim – Hansung University, South Korea Sungjae Park – Hansung University, South Korea Dasom Jung – Hansung University, South Korea Seunghee Son – Hansung University, South Korea Yoonwhan Kim – Yonsei University, South Korea Hyewon Lee – Seoul Women’s University, South Korea Organizing Performing Arts Records of Korean Traditional Music as Linked Open Data Abstract: This study analyzed the processes for publishing and providing archival records of Korean music performance materials in the form of linked open data. The subject of the analysis was records of performing arts materials in the Gugak Archive, which manages and services Korean traditional music performance materials. In the analysis, the research team considered if the results applied to performing arts fields and reflected the characteristics of Korean traditional musical performances and if the records could be published as linked data. The criteria for linked data was set by identifying the resource, designing the data structure, and linking related external data necessary for structuring semantic web data. The study’s results could be used in collaboration with cooperate with related organizations that provide Korean traditional performing arts materials or in the improvement of Korean traditional music archives through linked data. 1.0 Overview This research provides analysis and suggestions in building linked semantic data based on the records of the Gugak Archive of the National Gugak Center (NGC). Creating semantic web data enables the information of performing arts stored in a separate data silo to be searchable and accessible in a web environment. In general, separated data stored in a database are processed according to the intention of a service designer. Therefore, data use is limited within the given scope and structure. In addition, the amount of data that can be downloaded or browsed is also limited to avoid website traffic problems or slowdowns. In contrast, linked data expands the scope of sharing and processing raw data in the semantic web environment. The research team analyzed the performing arts records, focusing on the identification of the data unit, modeling of the data structure, and connection of relevant information (Park et al. 2019). The characteristics of performing arts materials and Korean traditional music performances were also considered because the event performance contained in the material should be expressed in the archival records, and related performance materials should be grouped together. Furthermore, improving the format and content of data will also increase the quality and usability of the data. The team analyzed the classification and cataloging information of gugak performing materials in the Gugak Archive and also examined how archival records of gugak performing materials are modeled based on the Functional Requirements for Bibliographic Records – Object Oriented (FRBRoo). 349 2.0 Gugak Archive of the National Gugak Center “Gugak” refers to Korean traditional music that involves performing arts, including modern contemporary gugak. The Gugak Archive, an organization affiliated with the NGC, collects and manages the data of gugak performances. The NGC, established in 1951, officially launched the Gugak Archive in 2007 for the collection, management, preservation, and service of Korean traditional music resources. Since then, the archive has collected Korean traditional materials and established a classification system and descriptive elements for cataloging (Kweon 2016; NGC 2019). In addition to managing gugak performing resources, the Gugak Archive also provides materials of gugak music performances through its website and external portal search site. 3.0 Characteristics of gugak performances and their materials The NGC develops gugak performance themes, such as “Saturday Gugak Concert,” as a part of its brand and conducts them throughout the year. At times, the center also holds special performances and events, such as the “New Year's Gugak Concert,” which are only performed for one day. In addition to the NGC’s performance materials, the Gugak Archive also publishes or collects information materials about gugak performances, including valuable donated materials. Therefore, the Gugak Archive’s performance materials have multiple types and diverse characteristics. The following is the research team’s analysis of the characteristics of gugak performance materials: • There are more series of performances by themes than individually authored performances. E.g., “Saturday Performance of Korean Music & Dance,” which takes place every Saturday. • One performance consists of many individual gugak works. Individual performance planning is composed of various musical works. E.g., “Saturday Performance of Korean Music & Dance” (May 21) was composed of individual works such as “Daechwita,” “Gayageum Sanjo,” “Ajaeng Sanjo,” and “Sinawi” performances. • Various types of archival materials related to performance planning, such as brochures, posters, invitations, and scripts, are produced before a performance. • Different types of performance materials, such as audio and video recordings and photos, are provided after a performance. 4.0 Organizing the gugak performing arts materials The Gugak Archive created an internal guideline for classifying and describing gugak materials (Roh 2017). They developed “Gugak classification scheme” based on KDC (Korean Decimal Classification), which is connected to “679, traditional Korean music” class. They also created a gugak glossary and a gugak thesaurus to utilize when indexing gugak materials. Currently, the Gugak Archive assigns a class name and keywords to each item and its components (clips). Description rules follow an internal metadata guideline created based on the General International Standard Archival Description [ISAD(G)] and Dublin Core Metadata Element Set. Under this guideline, gugak information is divided into three units: performance (collections), performance materials (items), components of performance materials (clips). All performance materials can be 350 grouped per performance as a subcomponent. Then, they are further divided into subcomponents with classification, index, and descriptive information. 5.0 Characteristics of searching and browsing the online catalog The Gugak Archive provides a searching and browsing service for its records on the website. However, there are several semantic issues such as below: 1) Linking information between performances and their materials: Performance materials should be grouped per performance so that users can browse them. Currently, the Gugak Archive grouped performance materials by performance internally to manage them, but the grouping information is not accessible on the website. Moreover, information between the NGC’s performance database and the Gugak Archive’s records is not connected directly. 2) Identifying and accessing the information of gugak performance materials using Uniform Resource Identifier (URI): Currently, there is no URI specified for consistent access to the gugak archival information. Users are able to access the information of the gugak materials by copying their Uniform Resource Locator (URL) listed on a web page. However, the URLs for each webpage could be changed at website renewals. Moreover, the hierarchical relationship between performances and their materials is ambiguous in the URL structure. The hierarchical structure of performance materials is composed of Collection, Series, Folder, Item, and Clip. However, the scope of Collection or Series is too wide, or the Folder and Item hierarchies are often set up identically. Hence, it is necessary to adjust the conceptual level of each hierarchy clearly. 3) Converting descriptive information in text format into structured access points: To build rich semantic linkage information, metadata values should be controlled by access points rather than descriptive values. However, important information, such as gugak performance programs or lists of performers, is entered only as text. The Gugak Archive also carefully describes the abstract characteristics of performances (i.e., genre of the performance work) based on the materials and the physical characteristics of performance materials, such as format or size. The archive also provides the classification information and search keywords. However, the browsing menu of the Gugak Archive website displays information about the performance item and individual component in one depth. Moreover, the information about the individual performance work, physical type of the item, or component are mixed in a keyword cluster. In this case, descriptive elements and access points should be clearly specified to enable users to search and utilize the materials at various intellectual and physical levels. The link information between individual access points should also be established. 6.0 Identifying and accessing gugak performances and their materials Based on the analysis above, the research team suggested a structure that improves the identification and accessibility of gugak materials in a semantic web environment; and applied it to the leading performance of the NGC, “Saturday Performance of Korean Music & Dance” series, by demonstration. 351 1) Analysis of “Saturday Performance of Korean Music & Dance” and its materials: a) Characteristics of “Saturday Performance of Korean Music & Dance:” This year-round performance has been around for more than 30 years in the National Gugak Center. It embraces various genres: court music, folk music, instrumental music, and vocal music. Its name has been changed a few times. The performance is usually planned on a yearly basis, and each month’s performance is composed of subcomponents such as “type A” and “type B.” However, even if “type A” is played repeatedly, various individual musical work play every week. b) Characteristics of the Saturday performance planning materials: Various materials are produced, such as posters, brochures, and invitations. Posters introduce performances on a yearly basis. Brochures promote performances per quarter. The scope and depth of the information included differ according to the time range introduced in the materials. c) Characteristics of the Saturday performance’s records (Post-performance materials): Live video or audio recordings and photos are created. For video recordings, there are original (filmed by a camera) and master (edited) versions with occasional additional commentaries. Most of the data are created on the performance day, and some of them have video or audio clips as subcomponents. Specific information is also written for individual musical works, musicians, and performing artists. 2) Requirements for assigning URIs and linking related entities between archival records: a) URIs for the performance plan • URIs for plan: Specify URIs to the performance planning per corresponding year and connect each URI to tracking the change of the title of the performance: 1998 Saturday Gugak Stage 2001 Saturday Year-Round Gugak Performance 2002 Saturday Gugak Stage 2005 Saturday Master Artists Performance 2006 Saturday Year- Round Performance 2009 Saturday Year-Round Performance 2010 Saturday Performance of Korean Music & Dance (up to date) • URIs for subplan: Indicate the subtitle of the performance planning, which always follows, to the URI as a subcomponent. E.g., 2011 Saturday Performance of Korean Music & Dance: Intangible Cultural Heritage of Humanity http://domain/performance_plan_id/sub_plan_id/ b) URIs for individual performance items and their components • URIs for the performance: Specify URIs to the individual performance and link them to the performance plan • URIs for performance subcomponents: Subcomponents should be cited, such as video or audio clips, by extending individual performance URIs. E.g., 2011 Saturday Performance of Korean Music & Dance: Intangible Cultural Heritage of Humanity [May 21] http://domain/performance_plan_id/sub_plan_id/performance_id c) URIs for individual musical work within individual performances 352 • URIs for related individual work: Individual performance (performed on May 21) within a performance plan (Saturday Performance of Korean Music & Dance: Type “C”) includes several individual musical works (e.g., Daechwita, Sanjo). Identify individual musical work and assign URI. E.g., Daechwita http://domain/gugak_work_id • External links for individual musical work: Individual musical work can be efficiently utilized if linked to external information such as related persons, locations, re-sources. E.g., URI for Daechwita (http://domain/gugak_work_id) can be connected to URI for subject heading “Daechwita” of National Library of Korea, < http://lod.nl.go.kr/resource/KSH00101678> (National Library of Korea 2019) d) Relation between performance and related materials • Connect performance materials to the performance plan and individual performance information. • Many individual performances can be connected for a brochure, “2011 Saturday Performance of Korean Music & Dance [January 8 – December 24]” • Posters can cover a broad range of time periods, but also specify a specific performance such as “2011 Saturday Performance of Korean Music & Dance: Type A [January 8]” • Live video clips can be used when numerous materials are connected to a single performance such as “2011 Saturday Performance of Korean Music & Dance: Intangible Cultural Heritage of Humanity [September 24] Original ①.” e) Constructing data about persons, organizations, locations related to the performances and their materials, and specifying URIs • Performance materials can be related to abstract objects or events, such as the performance work, performance plan, and the performance itself, besides physical properties per media. • Information on organizations and locations (venues) can be connected to the data extracted from the Korea Arts Management Service. • Pioneers of gugak music or musicians/performing artists can be found in the Encyclopedia of Korean Culture. 7.0 Considerations for Modeling Abstract Concepts Using FRBRoo In adapting FRBRoo, the Gugak Archival records, which are currently organized based on physical performance materials, “manifestation” or “item” in FRBR terms, should be grouped with abstract concepts of performance work, performance plan, and performance. For this, it is suggested to apply FRBRoo, an associated model of CIDOC CRM, for modeling the information of performing arts and their materials (Bountouri and Gergatsoulis 2011; Park 2018; Park 2019). However, the analysis of the current state of the Gugak Archive records shows that the following matters should be considered for the application of FRBRoo. 353 1) Units of F20 Performance Work a) F20 Performance Work is a subclass of F16 Container Work, which is either “sets of concepts” or “series of like performances.” With this, F20 Performance Work is differentiated from the Work entity of the original FRBR model and is also different from the F1 Work of FRBRoo that is mapped to the FRBR’s Work entity. b) In the Gugak Archive, Series and Folder units have similar concepts as F20 Performance Work. The Series is a continually repeating performance brand, such as “Saturday Performance of Korean Music & Dance,” which was adopted as an example in the main text. Meanwhile, Folder can be regarded as “2011 Saturday Performance of Korean Music & Dance: Intangible Cultural Heritage of Humanity [May 21],” a specific performance belonging to the “Saturday Performance of Korean Music & Dance” series. The sum of the artistic content and stage management contained in the Series and Folder unit of the Gugak Archive can be regarded as F20 Performance Work. c) In the case of Gugak, however, the types of Series and Folders are not simple. The “Saturday Performance of Korean Music & Dance” series itself is planned yearly but is transformed into various subseries within a year. They are listed as “Style Ga” and “Style Na” to change the content of the performance or specify themes, such as the “Master Program” and “Intangible Cultural Heritage of Humanity.” This characteristic of the Korean traditional gugak performance makes it ambiguous which field the F20 Performance Work should be associated with. 2) Scope of F25 Performance Plan a) F25 Performance Plan, along with the F20 Performance Work, is an important means of modeling performance materials in FRBRoo. As F20 Performance Work is a subclass of F16 Container Work, the expressions associated with F20 Performance Work have complex properties as F25 Performance Plan. In performances, it is a composite form of individual expressions, such as stage scripts, background music, and performance program materials. As revealed in FRBRoo, “[performance plan] may be more or less elaborate and may even foresee just improvisation.” (Mapping with actual data is difficult.) b) F25 Performance Plan is a composite version of many individual expressions, and there are diverse cases of individual expressions belonging to a subcategory. For example, the director’s stage instructions are like texts; background music is like sound, and stage setting drawings are like images and maps. Therefore, there are various descriptive elements that are necessary for the expressions. c) Actual performers and record managers sometimes have a different point of view from that of FRBRoo’s class definition. For example, F25 Performance Plan candidates belonging to one F20 Performance Work in the Gugak Archive include a performance poster, a performance promotional placard, and a performance program. In addition, recordings and photographs of performances are also regarded as planning materials related to 354 the performances. However, in FRBRoo, promotional materials are modeled and linked to F1 Work, the related external class. Moreover, recording materials belong to a separate expression or manifestation within the F21 Recording Work associated with the F29 Recording Event. 3) Information Related to F31 Performance and F20 Performance Work a) FRBRoo is influenced by CIDOC CRM, and core classes are linked around event-based classes. Therefore, the temporal class, F31 Performance class, also plays an important role in linking performance works with related works. However, it is not easy to obtain data related to the performance itself from the archival records of performance materials. The name of the performance, the date and time of the performance, and the location of the performance are important. Most of this information is contained in the performance poster and the individual performance program. In the case of performance recording materials or photographs, it is difficult to extract performance information from the materials unless separate metadata has been contained. b) Because of the nature of performance works, the fact that the same or similar content is repeated many times makes it difficult to confirm F31 Performance information. If performances are run throughout the year or run on weekends for a month, performance materials are typically produced from a few representative performances. Therefore, it is often difficult to determine which performances a particular recording or photo belongs to among individual performances that were carried out many times. 4) Information Related to F29 Recording Event and F21 Recording Work a) FRBRoo presents not only F31 Performance class but also F29 Recording Event as an important event class. Unlike other art genres, performances disappear as soon as they are performed. Therefore, the documents containing the live performances can preserve the performances and become a new work that reinterprets the performances (Lee 2018). Therefore, in FRBRoo, when an event called “performance” meets with an event called “recording,” performance works and recording works are linked with each other. However, it is difficult to find the proper metadata to describe the recording as an event in the archival records because those who recorded the performance are difficult to identify, while the director or actors are likely identifiable in the performance materials. b) In the case of the photograph of the performance, the photographer can often be found more easily than an individual who recorded audio or videos. This is the case when a famous artist leaves a photograph of a specific performance and distributes it as his/her work of art. However, there are few cases where information, such as photographers, shooting dates, and shooting equipment is obtained and provided with the photographs. 5) Relationship Between F20 Performance Work and F1 Work a) Performing works with the characteristics of comprehensive art are F16 Container Works themselves, which means that one F20 Performance Work is associated with several F1 Work. Moreover, performing arts can 355 be said to have abundant external links such as information about directors, actors, original dramas, etc. However, it is not easy to identify abundant external link information directly from specific performance materials. Although performances and criticisms may refer to the original plays, motives, and specific events and music, it is difficult to simultaneously organize the related individual works when recording performance materials in the archives. b) The archival records are commonly built around the records of the collection materials. However, F1 Work related to F20 Performance Work is more often collected by other external institutions rather than being collected with performance materials by relevant institutions. For example, there is the Jongmyo Jeryeak (ritual music), which is a UNESCO Intangible Cultural Heritage and the first National Intangible Cultural Heritage of Korea. The Gugak Archive contains diverse performance materials related to Jongmyo Jeryeak. However, as most of the Jongmyo Jeryeak is performed as part of larger performances, such as the “Saturday Special Performance” series, it is difficult for Jongmyo Jeryeak to be classified into F20 Performance Work. In addition, as individual records and books related to Jongmyo Jeryeak are difficult to be stored all in the Gugak Archive, they are more often stored in the National Library of Korea, which is a national deposit institution. It is not a common practice for archives to link the data of outside organizations while describing collections in separate archives. 8.0 Conclusion In the Gugak Archive, archival managers are making various attempts to preserve and distribute Korean traditional music. Consequently, the team raised the issues and challenges to be carefully addressed in consideration of the managers’ attempts. Moreover, the characteristics of the gugak and Gugak Archive, as well as the possibility of the web environment and the prerequisites, should be summarized one by one. In addition, the development of online information services provided on the individual websites of the Gugak Archive and the linked data for organizing and sharing the data on the web should be carried out together. In the future, the linked data will demonstrate that it can contribute not only to the Gugak Archive but also to cooperation systems between various institutions that preserve and provide Korean performing arts materials. Acknowledgments We want to express our sincere gratitude and appreciation to all the staff at the Gugak Archive. In particular, we would also like to extend special thanks to Ms. Noh Yeri. This research was supported by the Basic Science Research Program through the National Research Foundation of Korea (NRF) funded by the Ministry of Education (NRF- 2016S1A5A2A03927725). References Bountouri, Lina and Manolis Gergatsoulis. 2011. “Mapping Encoded Archival Description to CIDOC CRM.” In First Workshop on Digital Information Management. http://eprints.rclis.org/15844/1/02.Bountouri.pdf 356 Kweon, Hye Kyung. 2016. “Current Status and Future of Gugak Archive for Collecting and Providing Gugak Information Resources.” In Proceedings of the Seminar on Gugak Archive: Role and Value Creation in the Digital Age, Performing Arts Archive. November 8, 2016., Seoul, Korea. [Korean]. Lee, Hosin. 2018. “Performing Arts Videos: Beyond the Record.” Journal of National Gugak Center 40: 59-79. National Gugak Center. 2019. Introducing Gugak Archive. https://archive.gugak.go.kr/portal/main/introduction. [Korean]. National Library of Korea. 2019. Linked Open Data of National Library of Korea Website. https://lod.nl.go.kr/. [Korean]. Park, Ziyoung. 2018. “An Exploratory Study on Linking ISAD(G) and CIDOC CRM Using KARMA.” Korean Society of Archives and Records Management 18, no. 2: 189–214. [Korean with an English Abstract]. Park, Ziyoung. 2019. Linking Performing Arts Records Using Linked Semantic Data, in Seminar of Gugak Archive 16 December 2019. Seoul, Korea. [Korean with an English Abstract]. Park, Ziyoung, Hosin Lee, Seungchon Kim, Sungjae Park, Dasom Jung, Seunghee Son and Yoonwhan Kim. 2019. Improving Archival Records of Traditional Korean Performing Arts in a Semantic Web Environment. Presentation at the DCMI2019. 23–26 September 2019. Seoul, Korea. Roh , Yeri. 2017. The Preservation and Utilization of Korean Traditional Music Records -Focusing on the records housed at Kugak Archive-. The Society for Korean Historico-Musicology 59: 43–82. [Korean].

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Abstract

The proceedings explore knowledge organization systems and their role in knowledge organization, knowledge sharing, and information searching.

The papers cover a wide range of topics related to knowledge transfer, representation, concepts and conceptualization, social tagging, domain analysis, music classification, fiction genres, museum organization. The papers discuss theoretical issues related to knowledge organization and the design, development and implementation of knowledge organizing systems as well as practical considerations and solutions in the application of knowledge organization theory. Covered is a range of knowledge organization systems from classification systems, thesauri, metadata schemas to ontologies and taxonomies.

Zusammenfassung

Der Tagungsband untersucht Wissensorganisationssysteme und ihre Rolle bei der Wissensorganisation, dem Wissensaustausch und der Informationssuche. Die Beiträge decken ein breites Spektrum von Themen ab, die mit Wissenstransfer, Repräsentation, Konzeptualisierung, Social Tagging, Domänenanalyse, Musikklassifizierung, Fiktionsgenres und Museumsorganisation zu tun haben. In den Beiträgen werden theoretische Fragen der Wissensorganisation und des Designs, der Entwicklung und Implementierung von Systemen zur Wissensorganisation sowie praktische Überlegungen und Lösungen bei der Anwendung der Theorie der Wissensorganisation diskutiert. Es wird eine Reihe von Wissensorganisationssystemen behandelt, von Klassifikationssystemen, Thesauri, Metadatenschemata bis hin zu Ontologien und Taxonomien.