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Negin Shokrzadeh Hashtroudi, Mohsen Haji Zeinolabedini, Representing Entities and Characteristics of Iranian Performing Arts Based on IFLA Library Reference Model (IFLA-LRM) in:

International Society for Knowledge Organziation (ISKO), Marianne Lykke, Tanja Svarre, Mette Skov, Daniel Martínez-Ávila (Ed.)

Knowledge Organization at the Interface, page 479 - 483

Proceedings of the Sixteenth International ISKO Conference, 2020 Aalborg, Denmark

1. Edition 2020, ISBN print: 978-3-95650-775-5, ISBN online: 978-3-95650-776-2, https://doi.org/10.5771/9783956507762-479

Series: Advances in Knowledge Organization, vol. 17

Bibliographic information
Negin Shokrzadeh Hashtroudi – Shahid Beheshti University, Tehran, Iran Mohsen Haji Zeinolabedini – Shahid Beheshti University, Tehran, Iran Representing Entities and Characteristics of Iranian Performing Arts Based on IFLA Library Reference Model (IFLA-LRM) Abstract: IFLA-LRM is the result of consolidating three separate FR family models. The purpose of this paper was to represent Iranian performing arts characteristics based on IFLA-LRM. This paper is an evaluative survey. The research population comprised of 1368 performing arts records in NLAI. A checklist was used to gather the required data. The results showed that there is a good adaptation between performing arts resources with manifestation, item, nomen, agent, time span, and place entities of LRM. Also, the results showed that there were not accurate links from the work itself to its expressions. some gaps in identifying “works’ of performing arts and their characteristics through LRM attributes, and relationships were observed. Although LRM has sufficient entities, attributes and relationships, Application of LRM to Iranian performing arts remains problematic. These problems may be explained by problems of considering performance as a work and library software problems in representing essential fields. Some amendments in work and expression levels and their attributes in LRM will be needed to better describe performing arts. 1.0 Introduction In last years, according to the new technologies such as semantic web and linked data, the bibliographic universe has seen great changes in users’ needs and how Knowledge Organization Systems (KOS) model bibliographic data in information systems. Therefore, in the 1990s, IFLA and other organizations started to work on conceptual models. Functional Requirements for Bibliographic Records (FRBR) was the first conceptual model which was endorsed in 1998. FRBR is an entity-relationship model. Then, FRAD and FRSAD were developed to represent authority data and subject authority data in the bibliographic universe. Since endorsing FRSAD in 2010, it turned out that utilizing a unified model is easier than implementing three different models, Therefore, in 2010, the FRBR Review Group started to work on a consolidated model. Finally, in August 2017, three models superseded by IFLA Library Reference Model (Riva, Le Boeuf, and Žumer 2017). IFLA-LRM was developed to resolve inconsistencies between three separate models. This model covers all aspects of bibliographic and authority information (Riva and Žumer 2018). LRM facilitates the harmonization among the different cataloging standards (Dunsire et al. 2018). This model seeks to provide a conceptual framework for describing bibliographic entities. LRM focuses on user needs to create online catalogs that better support user information seeking. IFLA LRM has 11 main entities, 37 attributes, and 36 relationships. 2.0 Problem statement Documenting performing arts is a rapidly developing field, and has undergone a radical shift in the digital age (Lee 2018). It is impossible to hold live performances in libraries. Therefore, these materials are rarely considered in cataloging standards (Miller and Le Boeuf 2005). Whereas, Libraries hold materials of performance such as theater, music performances, and so on through their recordings or other forms of materials. 480 These resources are related to the library, archive, and museum communities. Therefore, it is necessary to pay more attention to their characteristics and how they are represented in the information systems. By considering the importance of materials related to performing arts, it will be useful to analyze how Iranian performing arts fit into conceptual models. The FRBR and LRM models are important for bibliographic description and access. Therefore, it will be useful to understand how they fit into materials related to performing arts. 3.0 Literature review Literature concerning modelling performing arts as well as implementing conceptual models was reviewed. Some researches have been conducted in these fields. Riva, Le Boeuf, and Žumer (2017), Riva and Žumer (2017), Oliver (2018), Dunsire et al. (2018) are of great importance for understanding the concepts of IFLA-LRM. The studies by Taniguchi (2018) and Žumer, Aalberg and O’Neill (2019) showed how conceptual models fit into different resources. Likewise, some researches have been conducted in completing conceptual models. For instance, In the case of performing arts, Miller and Le Boeuf (2005), Doerr, Le Boeuf, and Bekiari (2008), Lee (2018) studied opportunities of conceptual models in modelling performing arts. For instance, Miller and Le Boeuf (2005) discussed the performing arts and their entities in the FRBR model. In other research Lee (2018) analyzed Miller and Le Boeuf’s (2005) model and showed issues of their approach. Also, Doerr, Le Boeuf, and Bekiari (2008) analyzed how conceptual models could be used to describe performing arts. They proposed a detailed model based on CIDOC CRM and FRBRoo model to organize performing arts materials. FRBRoo is the result of harmonization between CIDOC CRM and FRBR and utilizes object-oriented formalism. Literature shows that Most projects examined conceptual models to describe musical works and performing arts are absent in these examinations. As performing arts are related to the culture of a country, it will be useful to analyze regional performing arts and their characteristics based on conceptual models. 4.0 The aim and scope of the study This study aims to represent entities and characteristics of Iranian performing arts based on IFLA-LRM. To achieve this goal, 3 main questions have been defined: • What are the main characteristics and entities of Iranian performing arts? • How can we analyze the opportunities of IFLA-LRM in describing Iranian performing arts? • What are the specific characteristics of Iranian performing arts which do not already exist in IFLA-LRM?. 5.0 Methodology This paper is an evaluative survey. The research population was comprised of 1368 performing arts records in the RASA software. RASA is important library software in IRAN and produced by Pars Azarakhsh Company. RASA has been tailored especially for the National Library of Iran. This software has been based on IRANMARC which is based on UNIMARC in turn. In this study, a checklist was used to gather and analyze the required data. This checklist was based on the entities and characteristics of Iranian performing arts and entities of the Library Reference Model (LRM). Mapping tables of 481 LRM to other conceptual models were used to be sure about the accuracy of gathered data. By analyzing the checklist, the degree of adaptation between Iranian performing arts with IFLA-LRM has been analyzed. Also, in this paper, some implementation tips about Iranian performing arts have been suggested to complete IFLA-LRM. 6.0 Results To gather the required data performing arts records in RASA software were studied. Table 1. shows the frequency of Iranian performing arts in this library system. Table 1. Types of Iranian performing arts in RASA software. Iranian Performing Arts resources Types of resources Total Document Audio visual Books Oral history Theses Serial Opera 347 3 2 1 - - 353 Orchestra 69 135 18 12 1 - 235 Ballet dancing 217 12 4 - - - 233 Folklore Dance 48 44 24 - 3 - 119 Siah bazi 7 57 21 3 5 1 94 Naghali 20 14 34 4 8 - 80 Theatre 20 4 - 9 35 - 68 Pardeh khani - 6 53 4 3 - 66 Ruhowsi - 22 22 2 1 - 49 Kheyme shab bazi 3 4 14 1 3 - 25 Taziye khani 6 1 3 2 8 - 20 Mareke giri - 4 1 1 2 - 8 Aroosak gardani 1 2 - 2 2 - 7 Chavosh khani 1 - 5 - - - 6 Ghashogh zani - 3 2 - - - 5 Table 1 shows the variety of Iranian performing arts in the RASA software. There were 1368 records related to Iranian performing arts. The most frequent Iranian performing art was Opera. Orchestra and Ballet dancing were in the second and third positions respectively. The blow table shows entities of Iranian performing arts resources. The main fields to identify entities of Iranian performing arts in association with LRM were titles, uniform titles, statement of responsibility, physical description, publication information, and added entries. “Item” entities were found based on keeping place and registration number of resources. Audiovisual resources consist of different forms such as compact Discs, images, cards, and so on. Their entities identified according to their title, agents, descriptors, compilers, photographers, directors, and so on. As shown in table 2. There is a good adaptation between performing arts resources with manifestation, item, nomen, agent, time span and place entities of LRM. There were not accurate links from the work itself to its expressions. Only in the textual plays, the link between expressions and their works observed through uniform titles. LRM describes the form of work through the category attribute. Also, carrier type of resources is declared in the category of carrier attribute of manifestation. Performance is limited to a certain time and place. Therefore, performance is contained within conceptual models through its 482 recordings. In the conceptual models, a recording is considered as an expression of work. Table 2. Entities of Iranian performing arts resources Type Freq Related IFLA-LRM entities W or k E xp re ss io n M an ife st at io n It em N om en A ge nt Pe rs on C ol le ct iv e ag en t T im esp an Pl ac e D oc um en ts - 741 116 741 711 741 650 746 10 - 148 350 A ud io v is ua ls - 311 56 300 280 287 215 300 200 - 30 80 B oo ks Full text 132 31 132 14 89 200 132 112 14 132 132 Proceeding 20 2 20 2 14 19 16 19 3 18 18 Adaptation 3 1 3 - 3 3 3 5 - 3 3 Summery 5 2 5 1 5 5 5 5 2 5 5 The play 38 12 38 10 35 38 38 38 - 36 37 Stories 3 2 3 2 2 3 3 3 - 3 3 Poem 2 1 2 1 - 2 1 2 - 2 2 T he se s - 71 28 71 69 71 71 71 183 - 71 71 O ra l h is to ry - 41 39 41 35 41 120 41 - - 41 41 Se ri al - 1 1 1 1 - 1 0 2 - - 1 7.0 Conclusion The main aim of this paper was to identify the degree of adaptation between IFLA- LRM and Iranian performing arts. the results of the study revealed that there is a good adaptation between performing arts resources with item, nomen, agent, time span, and place entities of LRM. This low compatibility may be explained by problems of considering performance as a work and library software problems in representing essential fields. There are some gaps in describing “works” of performing arts. Performing work itself is still unclear in LRM. Catalogers deal with manifestations and items in their institutions. There were not accurate links from the work entity to its expressions. Making links between a “performance work” and its various mediums is important. It is 483 essential to pay more attention to a recording of performing arts and their various forms of carriers. There must be a link from recording to the performance event. Also, a clear distinction between performer and creator is needed. There are some gaps in the “performance work” of IFLA-LRM. For instance, the medium of performance attributes in LRM has pertained to musical works. This attribute is not fully accounted for various forms of art. It is suggested to expand this attribute. Whereas, further modifications in work and expression level is required to implement LRM to performing arts. 8.0 Suggestions for further studies It is suggested to conduct comparative researches about opportunities of FRBRoo and IFLA-LRM in describing performing arts. It is suggested to implement IFLA-LRM in other kinds of resources and identify its adaptation degree with other resources. References Doerr, Martin, Patrick Le Boeuf, and Chryssoula Bekiari. 2008. “FRBRoo, a Conceptual Model for Performing Arts.” Presented at Annual Conference of CIDOC, September 15-18, Greece, Athens. Dunsire, Gordon, Clément Oury, Deborah Fritz, Ed Jones, Les Hawkins, and Regina Reynolds. 2018. “A Model to Link Them All: IFLA LRM as a Driver for Harmonization of Cataloguing Standards Related to Serials and Other Continuing Resources.” Paper presented at IFLA WLIC 2018 – Kuala Lumpur, Malaysia – Transform Libraries, Transform Societies in Session 74 - Committee on Standards. http://library.ifla.org/2235/1/074-dunsire-en.pdf Lee, Deborah. 2018. “Documenting Performance and Contemporary Data Models: Positioning Performance within FRBR and LRM.” Proceedings from the Document Academy 5, no 1: article 2. https://ideaexchange.uakron.edu/docam/vol5/iss1/2 Miller, David and Patrick Le Boeuf. 2005. “Such Stuff as Dreams Are Made on: How Does FRBR Fit Performing Arts?” Cataloging & Classification Quarterly 39, nos. 3-4: 151-178. Oliver, Chris. 2018. “IFLA Library Reference Model: What and Why?” Presented at ALA Annual Meeting in New Orleans, Louisiana, 25 June 2018. Available at: http://www.rdarsc.org/sites/all/files/IFLA%20LRM%20what%20and%20why.pdf Riva, Pat, Patrick LeBoeuf, and Maja Žumer. 2017. IFLA Library Reference Model: A Conceptual Model for Bibliographic Information. https://www.ifla.org/files/assets/catalogu-ing/frbr-lrm/ifla-lrm-august-2017_rev201712.pdf Riva, Pat and Maja Žumer. 2017. “The IFLA Library Reference Model, q Step Toward The Semantic Web.” Paper presented at IFLA WLIC 2017 – Wroclaw, Poland – Libraries. Solidarity. Society. in Session 78 - Standards Committee. http://library.ifla.org/1763/ Taniguchi, Shoichi. 2018. “Mapping and Merging of IFLA Library Reference Model and BIBFRAME 2.0” Cataloging & Classification Quarterly 56, nos. 5-6: 427-454. Žumer, Maja, Trond Aalberg, and Edward O’Neill. 2019. “Application of the FRBR/LRM Model to Continuing Resources.” Paper presented at: IFLA WLIC 2019 - Athens, Greece - Libraries: dialogue for change in Session 208 - Serials and Other Continuing Resources. http://library.ifla.org/2464/1/208-zumer-en.pdf

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Abstract

The proceedings explore knowledge organization systems and their role in knowledge organization, knowledge sharing, and information searching.

The papers cover a wide range of topics related to knowledge transfer, representation, concepts and conceptualization, social tagging, domain analysis, music classification, fiction genres, museum organization. The papers discuss theoretical issues related to knowledge organization and the design, development and implementation of knowledge organizing systems as well as practical considerations and solutions in the application of knowledge organization theory. Covered is a range of knowledge organization systems from classification systems, thesauri, metadata schemas to ontologies and taxonomies.

Zusammenfassung

Der Tagungsband untersucht Wissensorganisationssysteme und ihre Rolle bei der Wissensorganisation, dem Wissensaustausch und der Informationssuche. Die Beiträge decken ein breites Spektrum von Themen ab, die mit Wissenstransfer, Repräsentation, Konzeptualisierung, Social Tagging, Domänenanalyse, Musikklassifizierung, Fiktionsgenres und Museumsorganisation zu tun haben. In den Beiträgen werden theoretische Fragen der Wissensorganisation und des Designs, der Entwicklung und Implementierung von Systemen zur Wissensorganisation sowie praktische Überlegungen und Lösungen bei der Anwendung der Theorie der Wissensorganisation diskutiert. Es wird eine Reihe von Wissensorganisationssystemen behandelt, von Klassifikationssystemen, Thesauri, Metadatenschemata bis hin zu Ontologien und Taxonomien.