Content

Carmen Gebhard, Annex: Baltic Sea Associations and Structures in Detail in:

Carmen Gebhard

Unravelling the Baltic Sea Conundrum, page 231 - 260

Regionalism and European Integration Revisited

1. Edition 2008, ISBN print: 978-3-8329-4084-3, ISBN online: 978-3-8452-1239-5 https://doi.org/10.5771/9783845212395

Series: Nomos Universitätsschriften - Politik, vol. 164

Bibliographic information
231 Annex: Baltic Sea Associations and Structures in Detail Ars Baltica Acronym -- Founding year/launched in 1991 Website www.ars-baltica.net Governance model transnational forum and network Policy field(s) culture Organising principle state-centric Degree of institutionalisation low Cluster/organisational links to CBSS Members and actors Denmark, Estonia, Finland, Germany, Latvia, Lithuania, Poland, Sweden, Russia individual project leaders Ars Baltica aims at strengthening the cultural collaboration between the Baltic Sea States. It is based on two action pillars: one is related to the concertation and coordination in cultural policy development, the other consists of close cooperation between various different project contributors that cooperate in the framework of the network. The main objective of the network is to increase the international significance of the BSR as a cultural region. It builds on the assumption that culture should be promoted as a tool for handling social and educational issues. The practical aim is to offer a forum for cultural cooperation across the Baltic Sea rim, actively involving individual project leaders in order to give them an opportunity to voice their ideas and needs and to get into contact with the political decision-makers at national level. Some of the objectives of Ars Baltica go beyond the catchment area: it aims to establish and maintain strong links to other cultural organisations and networks in Europe and to promote the Baltic Sea cultural life outside the region. More generally, the network seeks to promote the value of regions and the significance of regional and inter-regional cooperation. Association of Castles and Museums around the Baltic Sea (ACMBS) Acronym ACMBS Founding year/launched in 1991 Website www.baltic-castles.org Governance model transnational association Policy field(s) art, culture, tourism Organising principle state-centric Degree of institutionalisation medium Cluster/organisational links to Heritage Cooperation of the Baltic Sea States Members and actors national representatives, Sweden, Denmark, Germany, Poland, Lithuania, Latvia, Estonia, Russia, Finland administrations of single museums and castles 232 The Association was founded in 1991 on the castle of Malbork (PL), following the initiative of a Polish castle administrator. The association brings together 31 castles and museums stretching across the territory of the nine Baltic Sea States (Sweden 1, Denmark 5, Germany 4, Poland 1, Lithuania 2, Latvia 6, Estonia 2, Russia 4, and Finland 6). The institutional structure of the association includes a General Assembly meeting annually, a Board that meets twice a year and consists of the national representatives of the member countries and a working group that is responsible for the preparation of lectures and annual meetings. The Association is intended to enable nonpolitical and non-profitable cooperation between castles and museums around the Baltic Sea. Its major strategic aim is to increase the overall understanding of the cultural heritage among its members and to establish a network for teaching and learning among specialists in the field. The working activities are organised in six pillars: research, education, restoration, management, marketing and tourism. Baltic 21 Acronym -- Founding year/launched in 1996 Website www.baltic21.org Governance model embedded project Policy field(s) spatial planning, sustainable development, environment Organising principle state-centric Degree of institutionalisation high Cluster/organisational links to CBSS, BSSYA, BSSSC, HELCOM, VASAB 2010, BLA21F, KBT, BTC, PPO, BUP, CCB Members and actors Denmark, Estonia, Finland, Germany, Iceland, Latvia, Lithuania, Norway, Poland, Russia, Sweden, European Commission official and non-official actors, public and private sector; Baltic 21 is a regional multi-stakeholder process for sustainable development initiated in 1996 by the Prime Ministers from the eleven CBSS member states. It is designed alongside the UN model for an Agenda 21. The BSR has been the first region in the world to adopt common regional goals for sustainable development. The strategic objective of Baltic 21 is to pursue sustainable development in the Baltic Sea Region by regional multi-stakeholder co-operation. Accordingly, Baltic 21 provides a regional network to implement the globally agreed Agenda 21 and World Summit on Sustainable Development activities, while focusing on the regional context of sustainable development in its three dimensions (the environmental, the economic and the social). The Baltic 21 working agenda is divided into seven sectors: agriculture, education, energy, fisheries, forests, industry, tourism, transport, and spatial planning. Its institutional structure consists of – a steering group, the so-called Senior Officials Group (SOG) consisting of representatives from the CBSS member states, the European Commission, various 233 international and non-governmental organisations as well as representatives from regional and sub-regional networks and formations; – a bureau supporting the SOG, – Working Groups for each thematic sector, – General Secretariat based in Stockholm (working unit within the CBSS Secretariat). Baltic 21 members are the CBSS member states, the European Commission, intergovernmental organisations, international financial institutions, international subregional, city and business community networks and other international non-governmental networks. Baltic BioTech Forum See ScanBalt – the Network of Networks Baltic Cooperation Forum (BCF) Acronym BCF Founding year/launched in 1994 Website www.baltic-cooperation.eu Governance model transnational network Policy field trade, business, industry Organising principle loose pattern Degree of institutionalisation low Cluster/organisational links to Hanseatic Parliament Members and actors non-governmental organisations based in the BSR, chambers of crafts, trade, industry and commerce Small and medium enterprises (SMEs) from all around the world interested in setting up a business venture in the area form the main target group the network seeks to catch. It intends to provide a network structure to communicate outside interest in the region and to build a hub that coordinates interactions and arranges new relationships between outside actors and regional stakeholders. By offering a field-specific internet platform the network seeks to provide a communication forum for SMEs. It forms part of Europe-wide efforts to strengthen networking between skilled crafts and SMEs. The establishment of the network has been strongly backed by the Hanseatic Parliament. In fact, the two organisations still uphold very strong cooperative links. The BCF is also financially supported by the EU (however, there are no formal links on the institutional side). Baltic Development Forum (BDF) Acronym BDF Founding year/launched in 1998 Website www.bdforum.org Governance model transnational network Policy field business, competition Organising principle loose pattern Degree of institutionalisation low 234 Cluster/organisational links to CBSS (informal) Members and actors including officialsm and non-official participants from academia, media and business The BDF is an independent non-profit networking organisation. It was established in November 1998, on initiative of the former Danish Minister for Foreign Affairs Uffe Ellemann-Jensen. He emphasised the need of BSR decision makers for an open discussion platform where debates about overall regional development strategies could take place. As from 2001 the BDF is organised as a membership-based association. It offers participation to a particularly wide spectrum of different actors: it includes political organs as well as business players, actors from academia and the media. The members are companies, governments, public as well as non-official organisations and cities willing to contribute to the development of the BSR. The network involves more than 2 500 decision-makers from all over the region and beyond. The primary mission of the BDF is to promote the BSR as an integrated, prosperous and internationally competitive growth region. The BDF Honorary and Advisory Boards consist of a group of high-level political dignitaries and prominent business executives representing the entire Baltic Sea Region. The BDF perceives itself “the leading high-level and agendasetting networking organisation in Northern Europe and unique platform for innovative thinking, informal cross-sector/cross-border/cross-level encounters and concrete new business opportunities with a global perspective.” It seeks to facilitate and develop new initiatives, partnerships and international contacts to stimulate growth, innovation and competitiveness in the BSR. The overall strategic aim is to develop the BSR as a global centre of excellence and to establish the Region internationally as a strong and attractive regional brand. The BDF tries to maintain very close ties to the BSR business community, and therefore, perceives its overall goals as “business-driven”. One of the organisational key concepts promoted by the BDF is transparency, both in respect to business interests and political differences. The network is generally designed to bring various different actors from all sectors together, to identify focal issues in the course of discursive exchange, and then, to develop strategies that help the key stakeholders to identify and materialise actionable objectives. BDF tries to ensure common benefits through mutual understanding. The establishment of strong visibility is seen as the key to strengthening the region internationally. Baltic Environmental Information Dissemination System (BEIDS) Acronym BEIDS Founding year/launched in 1998 Website http://beids.tec-hh.net Governance model embedded project (Baltic 21) Policy field environment, energy, transport Organising principle state-centric Degree of institutionalisation ? (project-oriented) Cluster/organisational links to VASAB 2010, HELCOM and other projects (e.g. BALTICOM, BERNET), BALLERINA; Members and actors states, represented by non-official project leaders Denmark, Germany, Finland, Lithuania, Poland, Russia, Sweden 235 The project aims at the circulation of intelligent information on environment, energy, transport and sustainable development issues. By providing a wide-ranging network and dissemination infrastructure, BEIDS tries to contribute to networking and know-how exchange in the region and to complement efforts towards transregional cooperation in sustainable planning. The project is embedded in the wider framework of Baltic 21.750 Before Lithuania and Poland became full member states of the European Union, the project framework was largely intended to establish cooperative links across the Union’s borders. The main objective was to raise ecological awareness, mostly among non-EU-member states in order to facilitate the implementation of existing EU instruments in the region and beyond its borders. Today, this transborder effect is focussed on Russia, while Lithuania and Poland find themselves within the Union and are thus more strongly involved in the process of strategic aim development. By making its database available to other projects and associations, BEIDS seeks to establish links within the field of environment and sustainable development. The major consideration lying at the basis of the project is the awareness about the need to strengthen the development potential of the countries involved. Among the beneficiaries and project partners are government agencies, officials and private planners, small, medium and large firms in the energy and transport sector, municipalities, local actors, research organisations as well as NGOs active in the field and area. Baltic Institute of Finland (BIF) Acronym BIF Founding year/launched in 1994 Website www.baltic.org Governance model self-standing institution Policy field all topical issues Organising principle -- Degree of institutionalisation high Cluster/organisational links to -- Members and actors -- The BIF is an independent organisation, which promotes multinational cooperation and joint projects in the BSR. It is based in the Finnish town of Tampere. The fundamental purpose of the Institute is to contribute to the development of the Baltic Sea cooperation. The institute’s activities materialise in concrete commercial, administrative, educational and cultural development projects. Additionally, the institute organises seminars and workshops dealing with topical issues concerning the BSR. The institute collects and distributes information about current trends and themes within the area. The institute perceives itself an essential part of the cooperation network which has emerged in the BSR during the past decade. All activities include partners from various countries around the Baltic Sea (including Russia). The institute is maintained by the Foundation for the Baltic Institute, which was founded by the City of Tampere for this very purpose. 750 See respective chapter in this annex. 236 Baltic Metropoles Network (BaltMet) Acronym BaltMet Founding year/launched in 2002 Website www.baltmet.org Governance model transnational network Policy field competitiveness, innovation, technology, research Organising principle loose pattern Degree of institutionalisation low Cluster/organisational links to BDF Members and actors official city representations, on request state authorities, on-member cities; Berlin, Copenhagen, Helsinki, Malmö, Oslo, Riga, Stockholm, St. Petersburg, Tallinn, Vilnius, Warsaw; The BaltMet Network was founded in October 2002, following the objective of providing the cities in the BSR with an informal structural framework to foster transnational cooperation. The network addresses capitals and large metropolitan cities all around the Baltic Sea, focussing in particular on the establishment of cooperative relations between the network members and partner cities as well as academic and business players based or active in the BSR. The network also addresses issues of inclusive Baltic Sea identity-building which is seen to form the basis for promoting and marketing the region internationally. The founding fathers of the network explicitly refer to the wider context of the Lisbon agenda claiming to pursue the goal of actively contributing to its realisation. Hence, the network holds an official content-related link to the regional working agenda of the EU. Baltic Island Network (B7) Acronym B7 Founding year/launched in 1989 Website www.b7.org Governance model TNW Policy field economy, spatial development, Organising principle loose pattern Degree of institutionalisation low Cluster/organisational links to CBSS, UBC Members and actors islands in the BSR B7 is a network of the 7 largest islands in the Baltic Sea including Bornholm/Denmark, Gotland/Sweden, Hiiumaa/Estonia, Rügen/Germany, Saaremaa/Estonia, Åland/Finland, and Öland/Sweden. The network seeks to minimise the permanent constraints that put islands at a comparative and competitive disadvantage to the mainland while still being required to offer their citizens the basic range of services and quality of life. B7 works to encourage the social, economic and spatial development of the islands to build on their uniqueness, promote cultural understanding and to learn through exchange of experiences and ideas. The B7 has an annual rotating Chairmanship and Secretariat. The network also has working groups specialising in environmental and social issues. 237 Baltic Local Agenda 21 Forum (BLA21F) Acronym BLA21F Founding year/launched in 1997 Website www.bla21f.net Governance model transnational network Policy field environment, sustainable development Organising principle state-centric Degree of institutionalisation medium Cluster/organisational links to Baltic 21, UBC Members and actors local authorities, represented by official contact persons, non-official stakeholders based in the region The Baltic Local Agenda 21 Forum (BLA21F) is a network of experts from local authorities, NGOs and various other organisations around the Baltic Sea who share a dedication to sustainable development. The Forum was founded at a working seminar in Lahti, Finland, in September 1997, where more than 70 participants from 9 countries of the Baltic Sea region committed themselves to the development of the network. It has been established to implement the Rio Process at the local and regional level and thus to strengthen and support Local Agenda 21 processes in all eleven countries in the Baltic Sea Region. A special emphasis is given to the countries in the eastern part of the region. BLA21F is not a short term project but continuous action to encourage the local level to carry out sustainable development and to find out means to protect the Baltic Sea. BLA21F aims at creating an active co-operation network to put the Rio Process into practice. BLA21F network has a national contact person in each country. Contact persons together with associate contact persons form the steering committee of BLA21F. They are also co-ordinating the work of BLA21F in the respective countries. The actors in the network are local authorities and stakeholders involved in LA21 processes, such as NGOs and other organisations, business and local people interested in LA 21 work. The official keywords of the network are: awareness raising, public participation and responsibility. In practice these aims are carried out by co-operation, experience exchange and training as well as dissemination of methods and examples of good practice. The idea is to develop and integrate new ideas and approaches according to the local needs and local actors. Baltic Local Agenda 21 Forum has been appointed as the Responsible Actor of Baltic 21, Joint Action 7 (JO 7): increasing consumer awareness of sustainable development. JO 7.1. focuses on Local Agenda 21 projects to increase public awareness of sustainable development. In this connection BLA21F lead the project ‘Awareness Raising on Sustainable Development in the Baltic Sea Region - a contribution to localising Baltic 21’. In order to increase public awareness on sustainable development, the project addressed all stakeholders involved in LA 21 processes in the BSR: local authorities, interested citizens, educators, business, consumer groups, local organisations and institutions. Furthermore, the BLA21F is networking with the Union of Baltic Cities to carry out the Joint Action 4 of Baltic 21: city co-operation and sustainable development issues in cities and communities. 238 Baltic Ports Organisation (BPO) Acronym BPO Founding year/launched in 1991 Website www.bpoports.com Governance model transnational association Policy field maritime issues, business, competition Organising principle loose structure Degree of institutionalisation low Cluster/organisational links to -- Members and actors port operators and users The BPO was established in October 1991 in Copenhagen, based on the main objective of facilitating co-operation between the ports around the Baltic Sea Rim and to provide for the productive use of the new possibilities for shipping that emerged in the region after the fall of the Berlin wall and the demise of the Soviet Union. More than fifty ports based in the BSR are full BPO members. In the first phase of its existence, the Western European ports played a leading role within the organisation, transferring knowledge to the East, and thus, disseminating important know-how (e.g. on market economy and business thinking) to the newly independent Baltic States. In the course of the 1990s, and not least, through the Baltic accession process, this situation has changed decisively. The Baltic ports have undergone a process of remarkable structural change. One of the major aims of the BPO is to improve the competitiveness of maritime transport in the BSR by increasing the efficiency of ports, promoting the region internationally as the strategic logistics centre in Europe and by improving the infrastructure within the ports and the connections between them. It seeks to enhance co-operation among the port users and operators, to introduce and apply new technology in the port sector, to improve the performance and the integration of ports into the transport chain, to enhance cost efficiency, good environmental behaviour, organisational development, co-operation with authorities and interest groups. Baltic Rim Network (BRN) Acronym BRN Founding year/launched in 1999 Website www.baltic-rim.de Governance model transnational association Policy field business, competition Organising principle loose pattern Degree of institutionalisation low Cluster/organisational links to -- Members and actors various non-official actors, mostly business partners The Baltic Rim Network seeks to support various project partners with their entry into and opening-up of new markets. It provides hands-on help, purposeful activities and supra-regional presence in order to help various stakeholders with placing their products and service international competition. The network promotes its competence by emphasising its experience in product marketing, good personal contacts and an 239 internet-supported communication platform they are able to quickly introduce cooperation participants to new products and potential business partners from the Baltic Sea market. Today, the association brings more than 400 representatives from companies, NGOs, teaching and research institutions, local and regional authorities together. The overall aim of the BRN is to establish an environmental Market Place in the BSR – networking ecologically aware companies and promoting the technological transfer and the development of clean products and production processes. Baltic Sea Business Advisory Council (BAC) Acronym BAC Founding year/launched in 1997 Website www.chamber.se/bac Governance model embedded advisory body Policy field economy, business Organising principle intergovernmental/state-centric Degree of institutionalisation medium Cluster/organisational links to embedded in the CBSS structure Members and actors seconded national experts The BAC is not to be seen as a self-standing organisation. It is an advisory body that is embedded in the wider institutional framework of the CBSS. The primary aim of this council is to give advice on economic and business matters to various bodies in the CBSS. The representatives are nominated by national business organisations and appointed by each government. BAC tries to speak on behalf of the business communities in the BSR. It reports to the annual meeting of foreign ministers of CBSS as well as to other relevant ministerial meetings. BAC actively participates in the work of the CBSS Working Group for Economic Co-operation (WGEC). It also holds close working contacts with other CBSS units, most importantly with the CSO and the secretariat etc. Baltic Sea Chambers of Commerce Association (BCCA) Acronym BCCA Founding year/launched in 1992 Website www.bcca.de Governance model transnational association Policy field business Organising principle loose pattern Degree of institutionalisation low Cluster/organisational links to CBSS, UBC Members and actors private companies The BCCA serves to unite the Chambers of Commerce of Denmark, Estonia, Finland, Germany, Latvia, Lithuania, Norway, Poland, Russia and Sweden. The BCCA was established in June 1992 in Rostock-Warnem/Germany in order to give the business community of the region a united voice for common concerns. The BCCA represents more than 450 000 companies belonging to all sectors on the Northern and North- Eastern European markets. The task BCCA is seeking to fulfil is threefold: 240 – to protect and uphold the interests of private entrepreneurship by advising policymakers in business related affairs, – to offer services to the business community and – to provide facilities for contacts, debates and meetings in the region. The BCCA General Conference is the BCCA’s highest authority that is entrusted with the negotiation and adoption of the annual working program. It convenes on an annual basis. Members are entrusted with one vote each, irrespective their Chambers’ number of individual member companies. These meetings are chaired by an elected Presidium, consisting of the president and four vice presidents. The BCCA Presidium directs the association’s activities in times between the annual conferences and is supported by an executive body. Baltic Sea Commission – Conference of Peripheral Maritime Regions (BSC-CPMR) Acronym BSC-CPMR Founding year/launched in 1996 Website www.cpmr.org Governance model transnational association Policy field spatial planning, development, cohesion, environment, security, transport Organising principle intergovernmental/state-centric Degree of institutionalisation medium Cluster/organisational links to BDF, BSSSC, CBSS, UBC, HELCOM Members and actors officials of sub-regional and local entities all Baltic Sea States (except Russia) The ‘Baltic Sea Commission’ (BSC/CPMR-BSC) is one of the six regional commissions that together form the ‘Conference of Peripheral Maritime Regions of Europe’ (CPMR). The CMPR is an umbrella association that brings together more than 150 regions across 26 European countries. Living and working in the periphery implies a set of difficulties that are common to all of those regions. Hence, the main objective of the CPMR is to ensure that EU institutions and national governments consider the specific interests that arise from their peripheral position. Moreover, the association aims at furthering transnational cooperation in and among these regions in order to enhance their assets. "The idea is to achieve a polycentric Europe by promoting and coordinating actions that turn peripheries into large, integrated maritime units. [...] The CPMR is a powerful lobby defending the interests of more than 150 peripheral maritime regions."751 The CPMR was set up in 1973, after a group of political actors had identified the need for an initiative that would enhance the involvement of peripheral regions in European integration, decrease the disparities in competitiveness and promote Europe’s maritime dimension. The basic structure of the conference provides commissions for each of the six major key areas in peripheral maritime Europe: the Atlantic Arctic, the North Sea, the Inter-Mediterranean (commissions founded in 1989), the Baltic Sea (founded in 751 Official website of the CPMR www.cpmr.org [26 November 2007]. 241 1996), the Balkans/Black Sea, and the Islands Commission (the latter two founded in 2003). The CMPR is meant to provide a representative voice and to act as a negotiator in European integration matters. Since 1997, the CPMR disposes of a central office based in Brussels that is responsible for the direct contact with European key actors at both EU-institutional and governmental level. The CPMR Baltic Sea Commission (CPMR-BSC) was founded in Kotka/Finland in May 1996 alongside the strategic principles of the umbrella association. The CPMR- BSC decided to put special emphasis on the promotion of a polycentric model for Europe by introducing an "alternative way of thinking in the Baltic Sea Area". At the moment, the CPMR-BSC brings 28 (maritime and non-maritime) regions from all Baltic littoral states (except Russia) together. The participating BSC regions are represented by actors at different levels of governance, mostly local and municipal entities (e.g. the Stockholm County Council [S] or the Regional Council of Ostrobothnia/Vaasa [F]). One of the general objectives of the BSC is to further cooperation and partnership networks in the BSR. However, there is a clear priority on enhancing the coordination between regional authorities, i.e. of popularly-elected bodies and entities. Sweden (10 participating regions) and Finland (8) both show a strong presence within the BSC. In late 2006, the BSC Secretariat was transferred from Lahti/Finland to the Swedish town of Visby on Gotland Island.752 The BSC activities mainly deal with spatial development and planning, cohesion policy, human resources, environment, social welfare, economic growth, democracy and common security. Frequently, also EU enlargement is on the BSC agenda, since the commission considers itself as some sort of "first wave enlargement forum inside the whole CPMR".753 The BSC has promoted a series of INTERREG III B and C project proposals with the status of "BSC projects". Moreover, it has been involved in the task force work on the development of the new HELCOM Baltic Sea Action Plan. Generally, the BSC shows a very strong commitment to being an active source for proposals on EU policy making. Hence, most of its agenda points are directly related to the activities of EU institutions, or to specific EU policies. As for the focus of this study, the most important example in this regard is certainly the EU Northern Dimension (ND). The BSC member regions have shown considerable dedication to the development and implementation of the EU-ND. Generally, the BSC considers itself a hub actor between the regional or local and the European level. In fact, in the course of 2006, the BSC has taken up a series of initiatives in order to enhance networking between different Baltic Sea organisations. On 31 May 2006, the BSC organised a co-ordination meeting that aimed at bringing different BSR associations together. On that occasion, Heads and Secretaries representing the Baltic Development Forum (BDF), the Baltic Sea States Subregional Co-operation (BSSSC), B7 Islands, Union of Baltic Cities (UBC) and Council of the Baltic Sea States (CBSS) discussed and decided about concrete co-operation proposals, e.g. regarding transport and infrastructure, environment, human resources and health, the Northern Dimension and the European Maritime Policy.754 752 Gotland is also part of the CPMR Islands Commission. 753 See official BSC website www.paijat-hame.fi/english/tasks/cpmr.htm [26 November 2007]. 754 See BSC Newsletter, Summer 2006, p.5. 242 Baltic Sea Forum – Pro Baltica (BSF) Acronym BSF Founding year/launched in: 1992 Website www.baltic-sea-forum.org Governance model transnational association Policy field economy, culture Organising principle loose pattern Degree of institutionalisation low Cluster/organisational links to -- Members and actors companies, institutions, sub-regional entities The Baltic Sea Forum was founded in Helsinki in 1992 as Pro Baltica Forum, a German Finnish non-profit organisation. It is the central part of a representative network of members from the business world, politics and administration. The Baltic Sea Forum is a private organisation which works closely together with a number of governments as well as with state-wide, regional and local institutions. The Forum renamed itself in 2003 in order to further emphasise its focus on the entire BSR even more clearly. The Baltic Sea Forum has representatives in Aarhus, Bremen, Brussels, Helsinki, Kaliningrad, Mecklenburg-Western Pomerania, Münchenstein, Oslo, Riga, Schleswig- Holstein, St Petersburg, Stockholm, Tallinn, Vilnius, and Gda?sk. The BSF supports economic, political and cultural co-operation in the BSR. The Baltic Sea Forum has an extended network of members, representatives and partners from all fields of activity as e.g. economy, politics, culture, and science in the Baltic region and Central Europe. The organization is in permanent contact with governments as well as state, regional and local authorities and institutions in the Baltic States. The major strategic objectives of the association are to realise programs and objectives of the European Union, strengthen the Baltic economic region, create an independent platform for its members in order to exchange ideas, experiences, and opinions, initiate and encourage cultural exchange programs between the states, draft trend-setting recommendations to committees and institutions. These objectives are intended to be reached by organisation of conferences, meetings, and fora, an up-to-date networked with constant information exchange, cooperation with key positions and partners in the Baltic Sea States, participation in international projects, drafting and editing of publications. The BSF fosters international co-operation through the organisation of conferences, meetings and events relating to current economic, political and cultural topics, provision of information for members and interested companies and individuals, support of projects and publications, and emphasis on the EU ND Action Plan and the promotion of Public-Private-Partnerships. Baltic Sea Healthy Cities Association Acronym ---- Founding year/launched in 1998 Website www.marebalticum.org Governance model transnational association Policy field health, environment Organising principle loose pattern Degree of institutionalisation low Cluster/organisational links to embedded in a WHO regional program for Europe 243 Members and actors cities, city administrations, local institutions Baltic Region Healthy Cities Association was founded in 1998 to promote Healthy Cities activities in the Baltic region. The goal of Healthy Cities is to make health and well-being a part of both the decision making and the activities of a city. It is a framework for the strategic planning, activities and assessment of a city. The Baltic Region Healthy Cities Association is a WHO Collaborating Centre for Healthy Cities and Urban Health in the Baltic Region. The European "Healthy Cities" movement is coordinated by the WHO Regional Office for Europe and has been carried out since 1987. WHO granted the status in September 2002 for four years (2003-2006). The redesignation of the Association as a WHO Collaborating Centre for Healthy Cities and Urban Health in the Baltic Region was confirmed in December 2006 for a next four year period (2007-2010). The work of the Association is targeted to all countries around the Baltic Sea, especially to – the cities in the Healthy Cities network, – the cities in the National Healthy Cities networks and – cities/municipalities interested to join these networks. The association aims to expand and reinforce the capacity of the WHO Centre for Urban Health and to support project cities and national networks. The Association acts as an extended operational arm of the WHO Healthy Cities programme by – establishing close and frequent contacts with cities and networks, – building a knowledge base of local needs, and – drawing on the technical resources of the cities and countries in the BSR. The terms of reference of the association are – to support the cities in implementing WHO Healthy Cities goals, – motivate new cities to join the networks, – to build the capacity of health and well-being expertise on a local level by networking with appropriate institutions and organisations, – to enhance the visibility of the Healthy Cities operations and communication, – to built information system of best practices and the state of well-being in cities belonging to the Baltic Sea Region Healthy Cities networks, and – to network with local, national and international health and well-being experts to share best practices and expertise. The activity areas follow the Health 21 and Healthy Cities priorities in Europe, which are – partnership building especially in integrated health development planning, – city health profiling, – governance and community participation, – sustainable development and health as well as urban planning. The everyday work of the office is conducted by The Baltic Region Healthy Cities Board, which consists of University of Turku, Åbo Akademi University, Social Insurance Institution of Finland, Turku School of Economics, and the City of Turku. The basic work is funded by City of Turku and Ministry of Social Affairs and Health in Finland. The Association work in close collaboration with City of Turku/Healthy Cities 244 Project. The members of the association are the City of Turku, the University of Turku, The Social Insurance Institution of Finland, Åbo Akademi University and Turku School of Economics and Business Administration. The member organisations of the association provide the expert services to support the goals of the Healthy Cities activities in the BSR. Baltic Sea Parliamentary Conference (BSPC) Acronym BSPC Founding year/launched in 1991 Website www.bspc.net Governance model intergovernmental association Policy field environment, maritime security Organising principle state-centric Degree of institutionalisation medium Cluster/organisational links to CBSS, HELCOM Members and actors members from the national and various regional parliaments of the Baltic Sea States plus representatives of BSR-based NGOs; Sweden, Finland, Russia, Estonia, Latvia, Lithuania, Germany, Poland as well as the Faroe Islands, Greenland, and Åland. The BSPC constitutes a parliamentary forum for the BSR. Its main objective is to develop cooperation among parliaments at the national and regional levels and to facilitate the multilateral dialogue on issues that are relevant for the region. Environmental topics and maritime safety are among the focal topics in this context. The first Baltic Sea Parliamentary Conference was launched in 1991 upon Finnish initiative. Since then, annual parliamentary conferences are held every year on a rotating basis. Between the annual sessions, a Standing Committee provides for the monitoring of the implementation of resolutions that were adopted by previous conferences. The Standing Committee consists of eight members from the parliaments of the Baltic Countries represented through the Baltic Assembly, of the Nordic Countries through the Nordic Council, of Germany, Poland and Russia. This Standing Committee is also responsible for the organisation of the annual conferences. It decides the agenda and program in consultation with the host parliament. The institutional objective of the BSPC is directly linked to the CBSS, since it tries to build the parliamentary counterpart to the work of the governments in that framework. To this end, the CBSS chairman usually takes part in the annual BSPC and reports on the activities and achievements of the Council. The BSPC officially aims at strengthening the common identity of the BSR by way of close cooperation and coordination between national and regional parliaments, by trying to link to other important associations and cooperative structures in the region, and by providing a forum for debate and information exchange between parliaments and other organisations in the region or in other European regions. All national and regional parliaments as well as international organizations in the Baltic Sea region send delegates to the annual conference. These are the national parliaments of the Nordic (including Faroe Islands, Greenland and Åland) and Baltic countries, of Germany and Poland, the regional parliaments of Kaliningrad, Leningrad, Karelia, 245 Mecklenburg-Vorpommern, Schleswig-Holstein, the local parliaments of the cities of Bremen, Hamburg and St Petersburg, the Federal Assembly of the Russian Federation, the Baltic Assembly, the European Parliament, the Parliamentary, Assembly of the Council of Europe and the Parliamentary Assembly of the Organisation for Security and Co-operation in Europe. The BSPC also holds an observer status in HELCOM. The Secretariat of the Baltic Sea Parliamentary Cooperation is located in the Secretariat of the Nordic Council in Copenhagen. BSR Online Environmental Information Resources for Internet Access (BALLERINA) Acronym BALLERINA Founding year/launched in n/a Website www.baltic-region.net Governance model self-organising project Policy field environment, energy, transport Organising principle loose pattern Degree of institutionalisation low Cluster/organisational links to HELCOM, Baltic 21, VASAB 2010, CCB Members and actors non-official project leaders BALLERINA is an environmental database for the BSR. The initiative to establish the network structure originates from the United Nations Environment Programme. BALLERINA mainly focuses on the collection and upgrading of statistical information. Baltic Sea States Sub-regional Cooperation (BSSSC) Acronym BSSSC Founding year/launched in 1993 Website www.bsssc.com Governance model transnational association Policy field comprehensive Organising principle intergovernmental/state-centric Degree of institutionalisation high Cluster/organisational links to CBSS Members and actors decentralised/subregional authorities The Baltic Sea States Sub-regional Co-operation is a political network hosting decentralised authorities (i.e. actors at local or sub-regional level) in the BSR and it was founded in 1993 in Stavanger/Norway as a direct result of the foundation of the CBSS. BSSSC membership is voluntary and open to all subregions (regional authorities) of the Baltic Sea area that are immediately below the level of central government. The organisation adopted a new statute in early 2004 as the nature of the challenges faced in the BSR had changed in the course of its first decade of existence. The revised points of reference contain the following objectives: – to act as a Pan-Baltic organization open to all regions around the entire Baltic Sea; – bring added value to regional co-operation on every side of the Baltic Sea; – promote and advocate the interests of the regions of the BSR to decision makers, such as national governments, the EU and globally; 246 – provide and disseminate expertise, best practice examples and implementation capacity with regard to BSR priority issues (mostly addressing national authorities and EU institutions). Credibility, Knowledge, Visibility and Flexibility are the designated guiding principles for the organization. Its main organisational bodies are: – Chairperson: elected by the board for a two-year period; external representative for the organisation and thus responsible for the relations with regional decision-makers and policy actors in the BSR (including collective actors such as the EU). – Board: decision-making body of the BSSSC, consisting of two representatives from each of the BSR countries; responsible for the ongoing promotion of the organisation’s political objectives and for the identification of priority areas. The political activities decided by the Board are based on a combination of the priorities expressed by the European Commission, the National Platforms and the CBSS. – Secretariat: supports the Chairperson and the Board; responsible for administrative tasks, the organisation of current activities as well as for public relation issues. – Ad hoc Working Groups: can be set up by the Board. Their main task is to collect information about certain priority issues. Presently there are five Working Groups dealing with the following topics: Agenda 21, Transport and Infrastructure, Northern Dimension of the EU, Youth Policy, Cohesion Policy. – National Platforms: forums for regional governments, ensuring that the Board activities are in line with the interests of the respective sub-regions. The Board Members are responsible for the platforms in their countries, and ensure effective co-operation. Each Platform appoints a contact point to strengthen the administrative capacity of BSSSC. – Reporter on Maritime issues – Contact Point, Brussels: responsible for the interface with EU-institutions The main working forum for the organisation is the annual BSSSC-Conference, which is – based on a rotating mechanism – held in one of the participating regions around the Baltic Sea. The BSSSC cooperates with European institutions and organisations and upholds close ties with other key organisations in the BSR. Even though the BSSSC operates on the sub-state level, it is still organised on intergovernmental grounds. It is directly affiliated with the CBSS, covering the respective local and municipal level. Also the BSSSC working groups work under the auspices of the CBSS. The BSSSC also holds a permanent observer status within the EU Committee of the Regions. It directly connects its political objectives to those of the respective Union policies, such as the Northern Dimension and the European Neighbourhood Policy. Baltic Sea Region University Network Acronym -- Founding year/launched in 2000 Website http://bsrun.utu.fi Governance model transnational network Policy field education, research, academia Organising principle loose pattern 247 Degree of institutionalisation low Cluster/organisational links to -- Members and actors university administrations; Estonian Agricultural University, Kaliningrad State University, Kaunas University of Tech., Klaipeda University, Med. University of Gda?sk, Riga Tech. University, St. Petersburg State University, Tallinn Pedagogical University, Tallinn Tech. University, Tech. University of Gda?sk, University of Gda?sk, University of Latvia, University of Tartu, University of Turku, Warsaw School of Economics and Vilnius University. The Baltic Sea Region University Network is designed as an umbrella organisation to facilitate and enhance co-operation between the signing parties. Cooperation in the framework of the network focuses on the following core areas: – Baltic Studies and Baltic Sea Region studies; – Distance Education and Open and Distance Learning; – European Integration and European Studies; – Institutional Management and Administration; – Management Information Systems and Information Technology; and – Regional Development. The members of the network seek to enhance student mobility by offering student exchanges within the region. Mobility is also granted to academic staff, seeking to augment working cooperations within the network and to establish new channels for knowledge exchange. The network also supports that involved individuals get the opportunity to attend seminars, congresses and conference meetings with a specific region-related focus. Joint research projects form the most ambitious cooperation field within the network, aiming to promote both bilateral and multilateral cooperation. Baltic Sea Tourism Commission (BTC) Acronym BTC Founding year/launched in 1983 Website www.balticsea.com Governance model transnational association Policy field tourism Organising principle loose pattern (with minor reference to nationalities) Degree of institutionalisation medium Cluster/organisational links to -- Members and actors BSR-based tourist companies and organisations The Baltic Sea Tourism Commission is a non-profit organization with over 80 members based in the BSR. The idea of establishing such an organisation emerged at a Tourism Conference held in the Swedish town of Karlskrona in May 1981. In 1983 the association was formally established and given the name of Baltic Tourism Co- 248 operation, or BTC for short. At first, the administrative structure of the association was limited to a permanent secretariat based in Norrköping, Sweden. In 1992 it was decided to set up a ‘Standing Commission’ with representatives from all interested parties, including Tourist Boards - national, regional and local, transportation companies (air, rail, ferry and cruise), port administrations and tour operators outside the area. In 1996, the original label and name of the association was turned into the current Baltic Sea Tourism Commission. BTC defines itself as a "result oriented marketing and networking organization." Its major aim is to promote tourism to and within the BSR. The main activities of the association can be divided into the areas projects and marketing. The marketing function includes free presentation of the members on the BTC homepage, presentation at selected fairs and trips for journalists and travel agents in the region. The annual BTC Travel Mart and Conference is the main networking event. By way of its activities and networking efforts the BTC seeks to pursue the following objectives: – secure a wider recognition of the Baltic Sea region as a viable tourist destination; – promote the regional identity and awareness to the media, the travel trade and the consumers; encourage a healthy development of sustainable and responsible tourism based on quality within the countries bordering the Baltic Sea; – collate data and information on the region by all logical methods; – initiate projects approved by the members; – liaise with official and voluntary sources and organisations; – promote the varied interests of its members by marketing and by providing member benefits such as networking opportunities at travel marts, exhibitions and conferences. Baltic Sea Trade Union Network (BASTUN) Acronym BASTUN Founding year/launched in 1999 Website www.bastun.nu Governance model transnational network Policy field trade, business, economy Organising principle loose pattern with reference to nationality Degree of institutionalisation low Cluster/organisational links to European Trade Union Confederation Members and actors trade organisations The Baltic Sea Trade Union Network (BASTUN) was established in connection with the European Trade Union Confederation (ETUC) Congress in Helsinki in July 1999. The network consists of 22 organisations out of which 18 are members of the International Confederation of Free Trade Unions (ICFTU) and 13 of the ETUC. BASTUN focuses on – supporting the trade union organisations in the EU membership application process, – trying to make the trade union voice heard to contribute to the implementation of the EU ND, – promoting collective bargaining at the labour market, 249 – influencing the Council of the Baltic Sea States by putting forward joint demands in areas such as employment, education and social policy, – formulating joint project applications to the EU and other institutions and foundations for financial assistance, – supporting the trade union organisations in the countries in transition in organising, organisational structure, administration and financing, – and utilizing state-of-the-art information technology, such as the Internet, for cooperation and exchange of information. The permanent secretariat has recently been merged with the Stockholm based Council of Nordic Trade Unions. The network is involved in projects co-financed by the EU. Baltic Sea Youth Office and the Baltic Sea Secretariat for Youth Affairs (BYO/BSSYA) Acronym BYO/BSSYA Founding year/launched in 1980 Website www.balticsea-youth.org Governance model intergovernmental association Policy field education, culture Organising principle intergovernmental Degree of institutionalisation medium Cluster/organisational links to CBSS Members and actors Denmark, Estonia, Finland, Germany. Iceland, Latvia, Lithuania, Norway, Poland, Russia, Sweden; represented by ministry officials The BYO has been established in 1980 focussing on the intergovernmental cooperation between the Baltic Sea States in the field of youth affairs. It is based at the Regional Youth Council of Schleswig-Holstein (RYC SH), which provides for the infrastructural and administrative framework. The Working Group (WG) as the organisational core is responsible for the implementation of the corporate objectives, the promotion of a crosssectoral approach while working on youth issues within the CBSS, for the arrangement of the annual work plan and budget; it functions as a forum for exchange of experiences available to the national ministries. Member states are represented by seconded officials from the ministries for Youth Affairs. The work of the office is strongly linked to the activities of the CBSS. The country holding the chairmanship of the CBSS also holds the chairmanship of the working group. Positioned within the WG there is an advisory group consisting of the representatives of the outgoing, present and incoming CBSS chair countries. It takes its decisions on the basis of the working plan of the Secretariat, acts as a special adviser to the Secretariat and stays in close contact with it. The Secretariat prepares WG meetings together with the advisory group and the hosting country. Baltic University Programme (BUP) Acronym BUP Founding year/launched in 1996 Website www.balticuniv.uu.se Governance model transnational network 250 Policy field research, sustainable development, environment Organising principle loose pattern Degree of institutionalisation low Cluster/organisational links to -- Members and actors university administrations, other research institutions The BUP is a network of more than 180 universities and other institutes of higher learning based in the BSR. It is coordinated by the BUP Secretariat situated at Uppsala University (S). The Programme focuses on questions of sustainable development, environmental protection, and democracy in the BSR. The aim is to support the key role that universities are perceived to play in a democratic society. This is achieved by developing joint university courses, and by participation in projects in cooperation with authorities, municipalities and others. Coalition Clean Baltic (CCB) Acronym CCB Founding year/launched in 1990 Website www.ccb.se Governance model transnational association Policy field environment, sustainable development Organising principle loose pattern (with state references) Degree of institutionalisation low Cluster/organisational links to n/a Members and actors non-governmental organisations based in the BSR In Helsinki, February 1990, non-governmental environmental organizations from the BSR countries united and established Coalition Clean Baltic (CCB) in order to cooperate in activities concerning the Baltic Sea. CCB is a politically independent, nonprofit association. At present, CCB unites 26 member organizations from Finland, Russia, Estonia, Latvia, Lithuania, Poland, Germany, Denmark, and Sweden. The CCB member organisations have over half a million members in all countries around the Baltic Sea. The main goal of CCB is to promote the protection and improvement of the Baltic Sea environment and its natural resources. Common denominators for the CCB network include seeking opportunities to encourage new and constructive approaches and engaging people to become part of the solution instead of part of the problem. Being an international network organization, CCB has the advantage of being able to work both at the international and national policy levels as well as with concrete field projects. CCB is politically unaffiliated and it works on a non-profit basis, operating primarily through lobbying, information, environmental education and other activities to raise public awareness as well as through the contribution to concrete co-operation projects in the field. Council of the Baltic Sea States (CBSS) Acronym CBSS Founding year/launched in 1992 Website www.cbss.st 251 Governance model intergovernmental association Policy field multi-sectoral engagement Organising principle intergovernmental, state-centric Degree of institutionalisation high Cluster/organisational links to BDF, BSF, BCCA, BSSSC, BASTUN, HELCOM, VASAB 2010, UBC, CPMR-BSC Members and actors Denmark, Estonia, Finland, Germany, Iceland, Latvia, Lithuania, Norway, Poland, Russia, Sweden, European Commission Ministers for Foreign Affairs Founded in 1992 in order to create a regional forum for dialogue and coordination between the national governments of the Baltic Sea States. Norway and Iceland (since 1995) are also members, as is the EU by way of a Commission representative. Moreover, France, Italy, Ukraine, the Netherlands, the United Kingdom, and the USA hold the CBSS observer status. The member states are represented by their Ministers of Foreign Affairs. The Council convenes annually, at the end of each Presidency term. The Presidency coordinates CBSS activities and prepares the agenda for each Council meeting. Between the ministerial meetings, the CBSS Committee of Senior Officials (CSO), formed by high-rank officials from the national Ministries for Foreign Affairs, serves as the main discussion forum and decision-making body, in accordance with the guidance received from the Council. Under the auspices of the CSO, there operate three working groups and two lead-country expert groups: Working Group on Democratic Institutions (WGDI); Working Group on Economic Cooperation (WGEC); Working Group on Nuclear and Radiation Safety (WGNRS); Lead Country for Civil Security; Lead Country for EuroFaculty-Kaliningrad. Since 1998, the Council is supported by a permanent Secretariat based in Stockholm/ Sweden, responsible for administrative and organisational tasks as well as for the implementation of the CBSS Communications Strategy and the maintenance of cooperative relations to other organisations in the BSR. Overall political guidance is provided by the Baltic Sea States Summits that, since 1996, gather the Heads of Government and a member of the Commission on a biannual basis. The CBSS has considerably backed the EU enlargement process. After the accession of Sweden and Finland, the CBSS agenda had gradually syntonised with the relevant EU policies. At first, the CBSS was meant to be of "traditional intergovernmental nature", and "should not be seen as a new formalized institutional framework with a permanent secretariat."755 The CBSS intends to serve as an umbrella organisation that facilitates coordination between various different regional organisations. To this end, the CBSS launched an internet portal (the so-called Baltic Sea Portal – www.balticsea.net) in order to provide for innovative channels of knowledge and information transfer and to enhance cooperation and coordination between the collective actors and stakeholders based in and focussing on the region.756 755 Terms of Reference for the CBSS, adopted at the Conference of the Foreign Ministers of the Baltic Sea States, 5-6 March 1992. 756 For more information, see chapter "The Council of the Baltic Sea States" (p. 49-). 252 Hanseatic Parliament Acronym -- Founding year/launched in 2004 Website www.hanse-parlament.net Governance model transnational association Policy field business, small and medium sized enterprises Organising principle loose pattern Degree of institutionalisation low Cluster/organisational links to n/a Members and actors non-official collective actors promoting SME In September 2004, the association of the Hanseatic Parliament was founded in St. Petersburg. Members of the association are more than 30 Chambers of Commerce and Industry, Chambers of Skilled Crafts and other institutions who promote small and medium-sized businesses from all Baltic Sea States (Germany, Poland Lithuania, Latvia, Estonia, Russia, Finland, Norway, Sweden, Denmark). It is based in Hamburg, Germany. – The goal is to help making Northeastern Europe an economic area and to orient its economic area especially to the concrete requirements of small- and medium-sized businesses, and thus, promote these businesses and the entire economic area as well as possible. It focuses on the following tasks – strengthening of economic competitiveness of the BSR; – development of an intensive cooperation with a high spatial identification; – support of medium-sized economy and the skilled crafts, in particular all transnational activities and international cooperations; – promotion of vocational training, education of businessmen and executives of the medium-sized economy in form of dual bachelor studies as well as further training; – promotion of economic and cultural development in the partial regions of the Baltic Sea Region as well as support of the experience exchange and a cooperation orientated on regional strengths. Helsinki Commission (HELCOM) Acronym HELCOM Founding year/launched in 1980/1992 Website www.helcom.fi Governance model international regime Policy field environment, maritime issues Organising principle intergovernmental, state-centric Degree of institutionalisation medium Cluster/organisational links to CBSS and other environmental associations Members and actors Denmark, Germany, Sweden, Estonia, Finland, Latvia Lithuania, Poland and Russia as well as the European Commission The Helsinki Commission (also known as the Baltic Marine Environment Protection Commission) is the governing body of the "Convention on the Protection of the Marine Environment of the Baltic Sea Area", also known as "Helsinki Convention" which was 253 signed in March 1974 by all of the Baltic Sea littoral states (Denmark, Germany, Sweden, Estonia, Finland, Latvia, Lithuania, Poland and Russia). Its main objective is to abate pollution of the Baltic Sea area caused by discharges through rivers, estuaries, outfalls and pipelines, dumping and normal operations of vessels, as well as through airborne pollutants. The Convention entered into force in 1980. In 1992, a second convention was signed in order to adapt to the new international circumstances. After ratification, this second Helsinki Convention entered into force on 17 January 2000. In contrast to the 1974 Convention, it also comprised the European Community as a contracting party. The HELCOM budget is partly covered by the European Commission, the rest of the costs are provided by the contracting parties (except the European Economic Community). The HELCOM members have pledged themselves to take action against the pollution of the Baltic Sea. To that end, each of them must adopt specific measures, e.g. ensure the creation of adequate waste reception facilities, ban the dumping of waste in the Baltic Sea area, or prevent contamination resulting from exploration or exploitation of the seabed or the subsoil. Moreover, the contracting parties have committed themselves to science and technological research cooperation. The HELCOM meets on an annual basis. It adopts recommendations on the protection of the Baltic marine environment that have to be considered in the national legislation of each contracting state. The chairmanship rotates biannually, according to the alphabetical order of its member states. HELCOM is a well-established institution that may be considered as the major point of reference for Baltic Sea environmental affairs on the inter-governmental level. It fulfils technical tasks, such as the central coordination in case of major maritime incidents and the conduct of permanent environmental monitoring. HELCOM conducts regular assessments of the status of the Baltic environment that serve as a basis for regional and international policy making. Thus, it also plays an important role in political terms: HELCOM evolves common environmental objectives whose implementation can have decisive impact on the latitude of national policy makers in the region. HELCOM aims at channelling the regional particularities into EU and global decision-making mechanisms. In order to strengthen the coherent appearance and adequate influence it tries to "reduce" the number of voices by way of sub-coordination among the relevant regional stakeholders (i.e. nation states and organisations). HELCOM maintains cooperative links to other regional organisations in the BSR. Most importantly, it is one of the major strategic partners to the CBSS. On many occasions, the two organisations hold stakeholder conferences to exchange views on BSR key issues and to develop common positions. HELCOM also involves all BSR stakeholders in the development of the ‘HELCOM Baltic Sea Action Plan’ that is required under the ‘European Marine Strategy’.757 HELCOM also participates in the ‘Northern Dimension Environmental Partnership Cooperation’ (NDEP). In order to enhance the synergies between various processes and 757 In late 2005, HELCOM decided to elaborate a comprehensive environmental strategy to restore the Baltic Sea, the so-called ‘Baltic Sea Action Plan’. One its most important features is that it is being devised with active participation from all major stakeholder groups – from governments, through industry and NGOs, right down to individuals living on the shores of the Baltic Sea. In March 2007, a final stakeholder conference was held, before the Action Plan will eventually be adopted in October 2007. See HELCOM News, Issue 1-2/2006, p. 9. Official website of the HELCOM www.helcom.fi [29 November 2007]. 254 programs, to maximise the use of resources available within the BSR, and to avoid possible overlaps, HELCOM aims at formally linking its Baltic Sea Action Plan to the EU ND policy as from 2007.758 After the EU enlargement in 2004, all HELCOM Contracting Parties (except for Russia) were covered by EU regulations such as the ‘European Water Framework Directive’ and the ‘European Marine Strategy’. This has partly changed the priorities of HELCOM in the sense that is focuses more on cooperation between the Baltic EU Member States and Russia, and on strengthening cooperation with Belarus and Ukraine. Heritage Cooperation of the Baltic Sea States Acronym -- Founding year/launched in 1997 Website http://baltic-heritage.net Governance model transnational network Policy field culture Organising principle state-centric Degree of institutionalisation low Cluster/organisational links to -- Members and actors states, involving non-official experts Denmark, Estonia, Finland, Germany, Iceland, Latvia, Lithuania, Norway, Poland, Russia, Sweden; Was initiated by the Baltic Sea Ministers of Culture. Its establishment built on the awareness about the growing necessity of a platform and meeting place where the actors in the field of heritage management could meet and discuss topics across borders. This led to the idea of creating a kind of market place, a forum for knowledge exchange and for the establishment of cooperative contacts between the actors in the field. The working structure of the association consists of various working groups (Underwater Heritage, Coastal Culture and Maritime Heritage, and Sustainable Historic Towns), and a Monitoring Group formed by non-official representatives from all member states, whose task it is to promote and further develop the co-operation.759 It is also responsible for the organisation of Cultural Heritage Forums on different topics. The main working method of the association is exchanging and spreading information on Cultural Heritage through the national bodies, identifying fields where Baltic Sea co-operation is needed, and the subsequent initiation and enhancement of networks through the arrangement of seminars and the production and dissemination of reports. Keep Baltic Tidy (KBT) Acronym KBT Founding year/launched in 1993 Website no official website Governance model transnational network 758 See HELCOM Heads of Delegation, 18th Meeting. Helsinki/Finland, 12-13 December 2005. HELCOM HOD 18/2005, attachment 2. 759 Russia does not have a representative in this body; in 2006, Iceland became part of the group. 255 Policy field environment, sustainable development Organising principle state-centric Degree of institutionalisation low Cluster/organisational links to Baltic 21 Members and actors non-governmental organisations and initiatives The network was established in 1993 upon a Swedish-Finnish initiative. Today, the network brings together various different organisations and associations based in the BSR (including members from Estonia, Finland, Latvia, Lithuania, Russia and Sweden) and dealing in particular with environmental issues, prevention of environmental degradation and the issue of sustainable tourism. The network organises ad hoc activities for the protection of the Baltic Sea environment (such as cleaning beaches after major accidents) as well as information campaigns about maritime pollution. The network seeks to provide a platform for the exchange of knowledge and it aims at enhancing awareness about the ecological sensitivities of the region. It arranges conferences and workshops on an irregular basis bringing together non-official representatives from all member countries. They are organised in the following national associations: Keep the Estonian Sea Tidy (Estonia), Håll Skärgården ren (Finland), Keep Latvia Tidy, Friends of the Earth Latvia (Latvia), Lithuanian Fund for Nature (Lithuania), Keep St. Petersburg Tidy (Russia), Stiftelsen Håll Sverige Rent (Sweden). The Swedish Foundation ‘Keep Sweden Tidy’ (Stiftelsen Håll Sverige Rent) builds the formal link between the network an its participation in the realisation of the Baltic 21 agenda. ScanBalt Acronym -- Founding year/launched in 2002, former Baltic BioTech Forum Website www.scanbalt.org Governance model transnational network Policy field (bio)technology and research Organising principle loose pattern Degree of institutionalisation low Cluster/organisational links to BDF Members and actors important actors in the field of biotechnology (e.g. university networks, life science industry ScanBalt was founded in 2003, following the dissolution of the Baltic Bio Tech Forum, with the overall aim of ensuring that North European Life Science and Biotechnology realises its potential for global competitiveness. It defines itself as a "mediating and coordinating network without formal power" whose strength depends on the strength of the individual networks participating. ScanBalt seeks to achieve this through the creation of a new ‘metaregional’ structure, which brings together regional and national expertise into one coherent, transnational, organisation. ScanBalt members are networks between universities, biotech/life science industry, hospitals and other actors in the biotech/life science arena. It coordinates existing networks and organisations and stimulates the creation of new ones. Therefore, it labels itself also "the network of networks". ScanBalt acts in a de-centralized manner, which is also reflected in its low degree of institutionalisation and its loose organisational design. The structure of the 256 association consists of an Executive Committee and a Secretariat. The secretariat participates in a number of funding activities. The ScanBalt secretariat produces a monthly overview of the most relevant EU calls and EU news, which is then published in ScanBalt news. The objectives of ScanBalt are to – Create a corporate identity for the ScanBalt BioRegion, – Develop visibility for ScanBalt BioRegion and the members of ScanBalt, – Attract human, industrial and financial resources, – Coordinate joint efforts in research, education, technology transfer, innovation and economic development, – Provide a platform to facilitate dialogue and collaboration between networks, academia, hospitals, public authorities, private companies and individuals, – Create a platform to facilitate dialogue with supra-national institutions. ScanBalt hosts a number of activities, and a number of funding sources are involved. At the international level, ScanBalt is presently receiving funding from the European Commission, the Nordic Innovation Centre and the Nordic Academy for Advanced Study (NORFA). At the national/regional level, ScanBalt is presently involved in a number of projects with partnership based co-financing. In April 2005, ScanBalt and the Baltic Development Forum (BDF) launched a partnership for cooperation and coordination. A significant element of this partnership is about turning ScanBalt into a stakeholder in the Baltic Sea Initiative 2010, a vision that intends to build up a forum for discussing the challenges and possibilities for improving competitiveness in the BSR. Social Hansa Acronym -- Founding year/launched in 1992 Website www.social-hansa.de Governance model transnational association Policy field social policy, employment Organising principle loose pattern Degree of institutionalisation low Cluster/organisational links to UBC Members and actors social organisations In 1992, Social Hansa was founded under the patronage of Björn Engholm, based on an idea developed by Carl-Einar Jörgensen from Copenhagen, who has been an active honorary member to this day. In 1999, the office was officially moved from Kiel to Lübeck. The aims of Social Hansa are to support the cooperation between social organisations by means of common projects, in particular with the new EU member states in the Baltic Sea Region. This includes the convergence of different structures and cultures as well as forming a network in order to fight against poverty Europe-wide. Today, the association consists of 71 members coming from Latvia, Lithuania, Estonia, Poland, Denmark, Finland, Sweden and Norway. There is a close cooperation with other organisations and institutions working on an international basis (most importantly, the International Council on Social Welfare – ICSW). Social Hansa seeks to contribute to giving the social dimension in BSR politics and social interaction more appreciation 257 within social and economic policy across borders, because that is what it perceives to build the basis for successful economic relations. After a longer period of uncertainty about the persistence of the association, it has been re-launched in March 2005. Union of the Baltic Cities (UBC) Acronym UBC Founding year/launched in 1991 Website www.ubc.net Governance model transnational association Policy field multi-sectoral engagement Organising principle state-centric Degree of institutionalisation medium Cluster/organisational links to CBSS, BSSSC, EU, Council of Europe Members and actors cities situated around the Baltic Sea, represented by local and municipal officials. Denmark, Estonia, Finland, Germany, Latvia, Lithuania, Norway, Poland, Russia, Sweden (Belarus, observer) The UBC was founded in 1991 with the declared aim of promoting and strengthening cooperation and exchange of experience between the cities in the BSR. It seeks to advocate for common interests of the local authorities in the region, and to act on behalf of the cities and local authorities in common matters towards regional, national, European and international bodies as well as to achieve sustainable development in the BSR with full respect to European principles of local and regional self-governance and subsidiarity. The UBC brings more than 100 cities in Denmark, Estonia, Finland, Germany, Latvia, Lithuania, Norway, Poland, Russia, Sweden (Belarus is involved with two cities, functioning as observers) together and seeks to cover many functional fields in its cooperation. In order to obtain these objectives the UBC intends to – Seek a systematic exchange of experience between member Cities in their common fields of interest by organising meetings, exhibitions, scientific and popular sessions as well as other events to popularise achievements of the individual member Cities. – Support and assist the member Cities in carrying out research work and publish their efforts to tackle the problems of the Baltic Sea and the adjacent land areas. – Promote interest in the history of the Baltic Region, its ecological and cultural heritage and work together to protect the Region’s landscape as well as its cultural and historical monuments. – Enhance inter-human contacts, particularly, among the youth of the member Cities by organising meetings, sport competitions, festivals, and other events. – Assist in and support the cooperation of professional group in the member Cities as well as that between individual Cities, for example, Twin Cities. – Launch initiatives and cooperate with the BSR governments and international organisations in resolving problems posed by economic development of the Baltic Sea Region and protection of its natural environment, thus enhancing its integration. – Foster communication ties and develop respective networks with other regional actors; 258 – Stage on public forums common motions, opinions and positions on the cities’ and the Baltic Sea Region’ s interests; – Collaborate in the process of European Union enlargement, bearing in mind the existence of the European dimension to the future of the cities; – Service its member cities in terms of information flow and help generate projects co-financed by EU, and other sources, offering cities project quality consulting; – Develop its own public relations program. The organisational structure of the association consists of the Presidium, the Executive Board and the Secretariat (situated in Gda?sk, Poland) as well as 13 Commissions covering specific functional areas (energy, business, culture, education, environment, health and social affairs, gender equality, sport, tourism, transport, urban planning, information, youth). The General Conference is the highest decision making body of the UBC and it convenes every second year in a UBC Member City. The UBC maintains formal ties with the European Union and with the Council of Europe, and it is closely affiliated with the CBSS and the BSSSC. The Union of the Baltic Cities is one of the few organisations that still emphasise the common heritage and the close to historic tradition of Baltic Sea cooperation. The UBC promotional material is among the most enthusiastic and visionary. In the context of its foundation in 1991, the organisers created the image of Homo Balticus, a specific human breed that is said to inhabit the Baltic Sea coastal area.760 Vision and Strategies Around the Baltic Sea 2010 (VASAB 2010) Acronym VASAB 2010 Founding year/launched in 1992 Website www.vasab.org.pl Governance model intergovernmental association Policy field spatial planning Organising principle intergovernmental Degree of institutionalisation medium Cluster/organisational links to CBSS Members and actors states, represented by ministers (and involving also non-official actors) Denmark, Estonia, Finland, Germany, Latvia, Lithuania, Poland, Russia, Sweden, Belarus VASAB 2010 was founded in August 1992 in Karlskrona/Sweden, when ministers from 10 Baltic Sea States decided on the development of a document titled "Vision and Strategies for the Baltic Sea Region 2010".761 It should contain an outline of the spatial development perspectives in the BSR and offer a useful basis for further enhancement and coordination of spatial planning policies with a regional focus. The respective works started in late 1992, and were successfully completed in 1994. Together with the final version of the document, the ministers of the contracting states also adopted an implementation program that stressed the role of co-ordination between national and 760 For a critical discussion of the concept, see chapter "The Tale of Homo Balticus" (p. 55-) in the main section of the study. 761 Norway was among the contracting parties but seized to be an active member in 2003. 259 cross-Baltic spatial planning, bilateral and multilateral partnerships in project promotion, intensified exchange of experience, and transfer of know how and spatial research in areas of common interest promotion. The institutional structure of VASAB 2010 consists of the Committee on Spatial Development (CSD), responsible for the overall co-ordination of common actions, and a supporting Secretariat based in Gda?sk/Poland. Generally, VASAB 2010 can be regarded as an intergovernmental entity, even though it does not exclusively involve state representatives. Germany and Russia, for example, also participate through representatives from the regions adjacent to the Baltic Sea. Belarus is represented through a non-official actor, the Institute for Regional and Urban Planning (IRUP).762 VASAB 2010 fulfils the function of an umbrella association that aims at bringing different BSR-based initiatives on spatial development together. However, VASAB strictly follows the principle of subsidiarity, i.e. it leaves action to other organisations, whenever it is deemed profitable as for the official VASAB objectives. VASAB restricts its activities to issues that require a strong transnational element. In many cases, it acts as a mediator and communicator between the local and the national level. Moreover, VASAB cooperates with other cross-Baltic initiatives. As a lead partner in Baltic 21 it is closely linked to the CBSS. The CBSS in turn gives regular incentives for the further development of the VASAB initiative: On its 13th Ministerial Session held in the Polish town of Szczecin, the CBSS encouraged the Ministers for Spatial Planning to update the vision of long-term territorial development of the region together with the relevant regional stakeholders within VASAB 2010.763 The association is closely (though not officially) affiliated with the EU, and her spatial policies respectively. VASAB produces policy recommendations on various spatial issues. The current priority areas were laid down in the "VASAB 2010 Plus Spatial Development Action Programme", adopted in 2001. – Co-operation of urban regions on key issues of sustainable development – Strategic development zones important for transnational integration within the BSR – Transnational transport links important for cross-BSR and cross-Europe integration – Diversification and strengthening of rural areas – Development of transnational green networks, incl. cultural landscapes – Integrated development of coastal zones and islands. The European Commission has shown substantial interest in the VASAB 2010 initiative. In fact, some projects emerging in the VASAB framework obtained INTERREG support. As the European Commission adopted the European Spatial Development Perspective (E.S.D.P.) in 1999, VASAB 2010 was officially considered "a first step towards formulation of a long-term framework for co-operation in many areas."764 VASAB has substantially contributed to the preparation of the Baltic 762 For more details on the activities and projects of the Institute for Regional and Urban Planning, see the official IRUP Website http://irup.by [30 November 2007]. 763 See Communiqué from the 13th Ministerial Session of the Council of the Baltic Sea States, held in Szczecin/Poland, 9-10 June 2005. Official CBSS website www.cbss.st [19 November 2007]. 764 European Commission: E.S.D.P. European Spatial Development Perspective. Towards Balanced and Sustainable Development of the Territory of the European Union. Agreed at the Informal Council of Ministers responsible for Spatial Planning in Potsdam, May 1999, p. 79. The E.S.D.P. is a nonbinding strategy document that aims at ensuring a balanced and sustainable development of the Union territory in accordance with the basic objectives of Community policy, i.e. economic and 260 INTERREG II C and III B operational programs.765 In its Gda?sk Declaration, adopted in September 2005, the VASAB addressed the EU with a set of concrete recommendations for future spatial policy strategies.766 social cohesion, knowledge-based economic competitiveness complying with the principles of sustainable development, and the conservation of diverse natural and cultural resources. 765 INTERREG IIC was launched in 1996 as a new type of action in trans-national co-operation in the sphere of spatial development within the EU. INTERREG IIIB was launched in 2000, it placed special emphasis on the integration of remote regions. 766 See Gda?sk Declaration, adopted on the 6th Conference of Ministers for Spatial and Development in the BSR, Gda?sk,19 September 2005. Available on the official VASAB website www.vasab.org.pl [30 November 2007].

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Zusammenfassung

Seit 1989 ist es im Ostseeraum zu einer explosionsartigen Entstehung einer Vielzahl von regionalen Initiativen und Zusammenschlüssen gekommen. Der Ostseeraum weist bis heute eine europaweit einzigartig hohe Konzentration an kooperativen regionalen Strukturen auf. Diese bilden gemeinsam ein enges Netzwerk von Vereinigungen, die unter dem Überbegriff der "Ostseezusammenarbeit’ interagieren.

Diese Studie analysiert die Hintergründe dieses regionalen Phänomens oder so genannten „Ostsee-Rätsels“ auf Basis eines Vergleichs zwischen den Regionalpolitiken zweier staatlicher Schlüsselakteure, Schweden und Finnland, wobei der europäische Integrationsprozess als übergeordneter Bezugsrahmen für die Untersuchung dient.