Content

Publicly available output of Peter Swartz in:

Sebastian Bruns, Sarandis Papadopoulos (Ed.)

Conceptualizing Maritime & Naval Strategy, page 357 - 373

Festschrift for Captain Peter M. Swartz, United States Navy (ret.)

1. Edition 2020, ISBN print: 978-3-8487-5753-4, ISBN online: 978-3-8452-9915-0, https://doi.org/10.5771/9783845299150-357

Series: ISPK Seapower Series, vol. 3

Bibliographic information
Publicly available output of Peter Swartz Editorial note: Throughout his Navy and CNA careers, Peter researched and drafted numerous papers and briefings, a goodly number of which remain classified or otherwise limited in their distribution. The accounting below is solely of writings that have been cleared for public release as of 1 April 2020. Prize Essays Abraham Lincoln Sesquicentennial prize essay (Providence, RI: Narragansett Council, Boy Scouts of America, 1959) “The Impact Made by the Confederate Navy on the Development of Naval Science,” Clarkson Abel Collins prize essay in American Marine History for 1964-1965 (Providence, RI: Brown University Naval Reserve Officer Training Program (NROTC) Unit, 1965). Books With John B. Hattendorf (eds.), U.S. Naval Strategy in the 1980s: Selected Documents, Naval War College Newport Papers 33 (Newport, RI: Naval War College Press, 2008). (NB: With CAPT Roger Barnett, CAPT Swartz (as a Commander) had been lead conceptualizer and drafter of the second iteration of “The Maritime Strategy,” declassified and reprinted on pp. 45-104). Book chapters “The U.S. Navy and Europe in the First Postwar Decade or ‘The Little Boy Who Owns the Baseball Usually Gets to Pitch’,” in Inter-Allied Naval Relations and the Birth of NATO, Colloquium on Contemporary History No. 8 (Washington D.C.: Naval Historical Center, 1993). “Discussion of the Papers Written by Dr. Jon Sumida and Dr. David Rosenberg: Captain Peter Swartz” (reflecting on the influence of historians and theorists on naval officers), in Mahan is Not Enough: The Proceedings of a Conference on the Works of Sir Julian Corbett and Admiral Sir Herbert Richmond, ed. by James Goldrick and John Hattendorf (Newport, RI: Naval War College Press, 1993), 184-186. 357 “Classic Roles and Future Challenges: The Navy after Next,” in Strategic Transformation and Naval Power in the 21st Century, ed. by Pelham G. Boyer and Robert S. Wood (Newport, RI: Naval War College Press, 1998), 273-305. “Preventing the Bear’s Last Swim: The NATO Concept of Maritime Operations (ConMarOps) of the Last Cold War Decade,” in NATO’s Maritime Power 1949-1990, ed. by I. Loucas and G. Marcoyannis (Piraeus: INMER European Institute of Maritime Studies and Research, 2003), 47-81. “John F. Lehman, Jr.: Passion,” in Leadership Embodied: The Secrets to Success of the Most Effective Navy and Marine Corps Leaders ed. by Joseph J. Thomas (Annapolis, MD: Naval Institute Press, 2005), 186-189. “Meeting the Chinese Naval Challenge: Lessons from the 1980s,” in China’s New Nuclear Submarine Force ed. by Andrew S. Erickson, Lyle J. Goldstein, William S. Murray and Andrew R. Wilson (Annapolis, MD: Naval Institute Press, 2007), 304-329. “U.S. Strategy on Security of Sea Lanes of Communication in East Asia,” in The Security of the Sea Lanes of Communication (SLOC) in East Asia, ed. by KIMS Korea Institute for Maritime Strategy (Seoul: KIMS, 2007), 57-82. “The Maritime Strategy Debates: A Bibliographic Guide to the Renaissance of U.S. Naval Strategic Thinking in the 1980s,” Appendix II to John B. Hattendorf, “The Evolution of the U.S. Navy’s Maritime Strategy: 1977-1986,” Naval War College Newport Papers 19 (Newport, RI: Naval War College Press, 2004), 185-277. “Challenges to Regional Security: American Strategies and Resources to Counter Them,” in Security Challenges Along the Indian Ocean Littoral: Indian and US Perspectives, ed. by C. Uday Bhaskar and Kamlesh K. Agnihotri (New Delhi: Matrix Publishers, 2011), 92-106. “Rising Powers and Naval Power,” in The Chinese Navy: Expanding Capabilities, Evolving Roles, ed. by Phillip C. Saunders, Christopher Yung, Michael Swain and Andrew Nien-Dzu Yang (Washington D.C.: National Defense University, 2011), 1-22. “The Role of Technology in Transforming Maritime Warfare,” in Indian and American Perspectives on Technological Developments in the Maritime Domain and their Strategic Implications in the Indian Ocean, ed. by Pradeep Kaushiva and Kamlesh K. Agnihotri (New Delhi: KW Publishers Pvt Ltd, 2013), 11-21. “Maritime Infrastructure-Building: Complementary Endeavors towards Maritime Powerhood,” in Maritime Power Building: New “Mantra” for China’s Rise, ed. by Kamlesh K Agnihotri and Gurpreet S. Khurana (New Delhi: Pentagon Press, 2015), 86-97. “American Naval Policy, Strategy, Plans and Operations in the Second Decade of the Twenty-first Century,” in Routledge Handbook of Naval Strategy and Security, ed. by Joachim Krause and Sebastian Bruns (London, New York: Routledge, 2016), 229-267. Reprinted with permission as American Naval Policy, Strategy, Plans and Operations in the Second Decade of the Twenty-first Century, DOP-2017- U-014741-Final (Arlington VA: CNA, January 2017). Publicly available output of Peter Swartz 358 Articles and published letters “A Symbolic Gesture,” The Washington Post, 17 November 1972, A2. “Contemporary U.S. Naval Strategy: A Bibliography,” Supplement “The Maritime Strategy“ to U.S. Naval Institute Proceedings vol. 112/1/998 (January 1986), 41-47. “Special: The Maritime Strategy in Review”, in U.S. Naval Institute Proceedings col. 113/2/1,008 (February 1987), 113-116. “Floating Bases: Moving Out to Sea?” in NATO’s Sixteen Nations (April 1989), 65-71. With CAPT John L. Byron USN, “Make the Word become the Vision,” in U.S. Naval Institute Proceedings vol. 118/11/1,077 (November 1992), 71-73. Reprinted in Thomas J. Cutler (ed.), The U.S. Naval Institute on Naval Strategy (Annapolis, MD: Naval Institute Press), 45-52. “New Roles for U.S. Military,” in Sloan Management Review (Spring 1993), 6. “Comment and Discussion: Reflections on a Naval Career,” in U.S Naval Institute Proceedings vol. 121/11/1,113 (November 1995), 18-20. “In My View … The Navy’s Search for a Strategy, 1945-1947,” in Naval War College Review vol. 49, no. 2 (Spring 1996), 102-108. “Navy After Next: Past Is Prologue,” in U.S. Naval Institute Proceedings vol. 124/5/1,143 (May 1998), 64-70. “‘Let us Dare to Read, Think, Speak, and Write,’” in U.S. Naval Institute Proceedings “The Sea Service Forum for 125 Years: 1973-1998” vol. 124/10/1,148 (October 1998), 3-9. “Moorer, Thomas Hinman (1912- ): Cold War US Naval Leader and Chairman of the Joint Chiefs of Staff, July 1970-July 1974,” in The Oxford Companion to American Military History, ed. by John Whiteclay Chambers (Oxford: Oxford University Press, 2000), 452-453. “Toward a 600-ship Navy: Secretary of the Navy John F. Lehman, Jr.” in U.S. Navy: A Complete History, ed. by M. Hill Goodspeed (Naval Historical Foundation, Hugh Lauter Levin Associates, Inc., 2003), 652-653. “Forward … From the Start,” in Naval Review Proceedings vol. 130/5/1,203 (May 2003), 80-86. “Review of U.S. Army White Paper, ‘Serving a Nation at War’,” in U.S. Naval Institute Proceedings vol. 130/8/1,218 (August 2004), 64. Review of Naval Power and Expeditionary Warfare: Peripheral Campaigns and New Theatres of Naval Warfare, ed. by Bruce A. Elleman and S. C. M. Paine (Abingdon: Taylor & Francis Ltd., 2010), in Naval War College Review vol. 66, no. 4 (Autumn 2013), 142-143. “Comment and Discussion: Strategy and Submarine,” in U.S. Naval Institute Proceedings vol. 140/2/1,332 (February 2014), 82-83. “Special – Looking Out Over the Promised Land: The U.S. Naval Institute Proceedings, 1880-1889,” in U.S. Naval Institute Proceedings vol. 140/6/1,336 (June 2014), 16-18. Publicly available output of Peter Swartz 359 Review of Sea Power: The History and Geopolitics of the World’s Oceans by Admiral (Ret) James Stavridis (London: Penguin Press, 2017), in U.S. Naval Institute Proceedings vol. 143/6/1,372 (June 2017), 78. Review of Progressives in Navy Blue: Maritime Strategy, American Empire, and the Transformation of U.S. Naval Identity, 1873-1898 by CAPT(Ret) Scott Mobley (Annapolis, MD: The Naval Institute Press, 2018); and Learning War: The Evolution of Fighting Doctrine in the U.S. Navy, 1898-1945 by Trent Hone (Annapolis, MD: The Naval Institute Press, 2018), in U.S. Naval Institute Proceedings vol. 145/5/1,395 (May 2019), 156-157. “Holloway’s Contribution to Naval Strategy,” in Pull Together 59, No.1 (Winter 2020), 14. CNA reports (publicly available) With E. D. McGrady, A Deep Legacy: Smaller-Scale Contingencies and the Forces that Shaped the Navy, CRM 98-95.10 (Alexandria, VA: Center for Naval Analyses, December 1998). With E. D. McGrady, U.S. Navy Forward Deployment 1801-2001 (Alexandria, VA: Center for Naval Analyses, June 2001). “Forward … from the Start:” The U.S. Navy & Homeland Defense: 1775-2003, COP D0006678.A1/Final (Alexandria, VA: Center for Naval Analyses, February 2003). U.S.-Greek Naval Relations Begin: Antipiracy Operations in the Aegean Sea, COP D0008571.A1/Final (Alexandria, VA: Center for Naval Analyses, June 2003). James Wylie (Rapporteur), “North American Maritime Homeland Security and Defense:” A CNA Corporation Workshop: January 16, 2004: Washington DC, CIM D0009767.A23/1 Rev (Alexandria, VA: Center for Naval Analyses, February 2004). With Ian Lesser and Daniel J. Whiteneck, Political-Military Trends in Italy, Greece, and Spain, CIM D0012974.A2/Final (Alexandria, VA: Center for Naval Analyses, December 2005). With Robert Benbow, Fred Ensminger, Scott Savitz and Major Dan Stimpson, Renewal of Navy’s Riverine Capability: A Preliminary Examination of Past, Current and Future Capabilities, CRM D0013241.A5/2Rev (Alexandria, VA: Center for Naval Analyses, March 2006). With Daniel Whiteneck, Michael Price and Neil Jenkins, The Navy at a Tipping Point: Maritime Dominance at Stake?, CAB D0022262.A3/1Rev (Alexandria, VA: Center for Naval Analyses, March 2010). The CNA Capstone Strategy Series, 2011 (slide format). – With Karin Duggan, U.S. Navy Capstone Strategy, Policy, Vision and Concept Documents: What to consider before you write one, CQR D0020071.A1/Final (Alexandria, VA: Center for Naval Analyses, March 2009). Publicly available output of Peter Swartz 360 – With Karin Duggan, U.S. Navy Capstone Strategies and Concepts (1970-2010): A Brief Summary, MISC D0026437.A1/Final (Alexandria, VA: Center for Naval Analyses, December 2011). – With Karin Duggan, U.S. Navy Capstone Strategies and Concepts: Introduction, Background and Analyses, MISC D0026421.A1/Final (Alexandria, VA: Center for Naval Analyses, December 2011). – With Karin Duggan, The U.S. Navy in the World (1970-2010): Context for U.S. Navy Capstone Strategies and Concepts: Volume I, MISC D0026417.A1/Final (Alexandria, VA: Center for Naval Analyses, December 2011). – With Karin Duggan, The U.S. Navy in the World (1970-2010): Context for U.S. Navy Capstone Strategies and Concepts: Volume II, MISC D0026417.A2/Final (Alexandria, VA: Center for Naval Analyses, December 2011). – With Karin Duggan, U.S. Navy Capstone Strategies and Concepts (1970-1980): Strategy, Policy, Concept, and Vision Documents, MISC D0026414.A1/Final (Alexandria, VA: Center for Naval Analyses, December 2011). – With Karin Duggan, The U.S. Navy in the World (1970-1980): Context for U.S. Navy Capstone Strategies and Concepts, MISC D0026418.A1/ Final (Alexandria, VA: Center for Naval Analyses, December 2011). – With Karin Duggan, U.S. Navy Capstone Strategies and Concepts (1981-1990): Strategy, Policy, Concept, and Vision Documents, MISC D0026415.A1 (Alexandria VA: Center for Naval Analyses, December 2011). – With Karin Duggan, The U.S. Navy in the World (1981-1990): Context for U.S. Navy Capstone Strategies and Concepts, MISC D0026419.A1/Final (Alexandria, VA: Center for Naval Analyses, December 2011). – With Karin Duggan, U.S. Navy Capstone Strategies and Concepts (1991-2000): Strategy, Policy, Concept, and Vision Documents, MISC D0026416.A2/Final (Alexandria, VA: Center for Naval Analyses, March 2012). – With Karin Duggan, The U.S. Navy in the World (1991-2000): Context for U.S. Navy Capstone Strategies and Concepts, MISC D0026420.A2/Final (Alexandria, VA: Center for Naval Analyses, March 2012). – With Karin Duggan, U.S. Navy Capstone Strategies and Concepts (2001-2010): Strategy, Policy, Concept, and Vision Documents, MISC D0026241.A2/Final (Alexandria, VA: Center for Naval Analyses, December 2011). – With Karin Duggan, The U.S. Navy in the World (2001-2010): Context for U.S. Navy Capstone Strategies and Concepts, MISC D0026242.A2/Final (Alexandria, VA: Center for Naval Analyses, December 2011). – With Karin Duggan, U.S. Navy Capstone Strategies and Concepts (1970-2010): Comparisons, Contrasts, and Changes: Volume I, MISC D0026422.A1/Final (Alexandria, VA: Center for Naval Analyses, December 2011). – With Karin Duggan, U.S. Navy Capstone Strategies and Concepts (1970-2010): Comparisons, Contrasts, and Changes: Volume II, MISC D0026423.A1/Final (Alexandria, VA: Center for Naval Analyses, December 2011). – With Michael C. Markowitz, Organizing OPNAV (1970-2009), CAB D0020997.A5/2Rev (Alexandria, VA: Center for Naval Analyses, January 2010). Publicly available output of Peter Swartz 361 – With Karin Duggan, U.S. Navy – U.S. Air Force Relationships 1970-2010, MISC D0024022.A4/1Rev (Alexandria, VA: Center for Naval Analyses, June 2011). – With Michael Connell, Understanding an Adversary’s Strategic and Operational Calculus: A Late Cold War Case Study with 21st Century Applicability: U.S. Views on Soviet Navy Strategy and Operations, COP-2013-U-005622-Final (Alexandria, VA: Center for Naval Analyses, August 2013). – American Naval Policy, Strategy, Plans and Operations in the Second Decade of the Twenty-first Century, DOP-2017-U-014741-Final (Arlington, VA: Center for Naval Analyses, January 2017). – With William Rosenau and ENS Hannah Kates USN, The Origins and Development of A Cooperative Strategy for 21st Century Seapower (2015), DRM-2015- U-012011-2Rev (Arlington, VA: Center for Naval Analyses, September 2017). Other reports Addendum to “Contemporary U.S. Naval Strategy: A Bibliography,” (Annapolis MD: The Naval Institute Press, April 1987). The Maritime Strategy Debates: A Guide to the Renaissance of U.S. Naval Strategic Thinking in the 1980s, NPS-56-88-009 (Monterey, CA: Naval Postgraduate School, 24 February 1988). With Jan S. Breemer and James J. Tritten, The Maritime Strategy Debates: A Guide to the Renaissance of U.S. Naval Strategic Thinking in the 1980s: Revised Edition, NPS-56-89-019 (Monterey, CA: Naval Postgraduate School, 30 September 1989). With Narushige Michishita and David Winkler, Lessons of the Cold War in the Pacific: U.S. Maritime Strategy, Crisis Prevention, and Japan’s Role (Washington D.C.: The Wilson International Center for Scholars, 2016). Video presentations “Projecting U.S. European, NATO Naval Cooperation,” (Berlin GE: Aspen European Strategy Forum, October 2013), https://www.youtube.com/watch? v=qs_4TOrbjkw. With Narushige Mitsushita and David Winkler, “U.S.-Japan Military Strategies in the Pacific” (Washington D.C.: Wilson International Center for Scholars, 7 March 2016), https://www.c-span.org/video/?406041-1/. “Future Deployment Options for the Fleet: Lessons from the Past” (Newport, RI: Naval War College, College of Distance Education (CDE), Joint Maritime Operations (JMO) Course, 14 December 2018). Publicly available output of Peter Swartz 362 Selected conference papers and briefings “The U.S. Navy’s Relations with the West European Navies in the First Cold War Decade: The Italian and German Cases,” presented at the Eleventh Naval History Symposium (Annapolis, MD: U.S. Naval Academy, 22 October 1993). “Insiders Vs. Outsiders: How Americans Saw the Soviet Navy, 1945-1956,” presented at the Conference on the Cuban Missile Crisis, the Strategic Nuclear Competition and Cold War Navies (Moscow: Russian State Archives, 27-29 September 1994). “Friends and Enemies: Greek Navy Relations with Other Navies, 1945-1955: A Study in Trans-Governmental Relations,” presented at the Society for Historians of American Foreign Relations (SHAFR) Annual Meeting (Annapolis, MD: U.S. Naval Academy, 22 June 1995). “A Historical Perspective on the Navy’s Role in Homeland Defense,” presented to the CNO Executive Panel (CEP) Homeland Defense Task Force (Alexandria, VA: 5 November 1998) “Contemporary U.S. Navy Culture,” presented to CSIS Working Group on US Military Culture (Washington D.C.: CSIS Center for Strategic and International Studies, 18 February 1999); also delivered at the Center for Naval Analyses and other venues. “Drawing Lines on the Seas: The U.S. Navy Confronts the Unified Command Plan, 1946-1998,” presented at the Fourteenth Naval History Symposium (Annapolis, MD: U.S. Naval Academy, 25 September 1999). “The Maritime Dimension of U.S. Homeland Security Policy & the Implications for Canada: A U.S. Perspective,” presented at the Conference on the Future of Canada’s Maritime Capabilities: The Issues, Challenges and Solutions in a New Security Environment (Halifax, NS: Dalhousie University Centre for Foreign Policy Studies, 18-20 June 2004). “How the United States European Command is Responding to the Fast-Evolving Security Challenges of the 21st Century,” presented at the Conference on Revising the Unified Command Plan (Washington D.C.: The Heritage Foundation, 21 September 2004). “US Navy Concepts, Vision, and Technology,” presented at the Maritime Security Conference (Halifax, NS: Dalhousie University, June 2006). “The Maritime Strategy as the Outcome of a ‘Perfect Storm,’” presented at the Naval Submarine League-Naval Historical Center Annual History Conference (Washington D.C.: National Museum of the U.S. Navy, 11 April 2013). “History and Future of USN Strategy,” presented to CNA Board of Trustees (Arlington, VA: Center for Naval Analyses, 17 September 2015) “U.S. Navy Forward Presence,” Commentary on presentation by Dr. Thomas Mahnken (Washington D.C.: Naval History and Heritage Command, 1 June 2016). Publicly available output of Peter Swartz 363 “The Effects of the Vietnam War on Subsequent US Navy Operations and Plans,” presented at the Conference on the Naval War in Vietnam: Vietnamese and American Perspectives (Newport, RI: Naval War College Press, 10 February 2020). Oral Histories, interviews, podcasts, biographical articles Commander Peter Swartz USN, interview by Dr. Edward Marolda (Washington D.C.: Naval Historical Center, Washington Navy Yard, 21 July 1982), Accession Number 887154. Captain Peter M. Swartz, USN (ret.), interview by Sebastian Bruns (Washington D.C.: Washington Navy Yard, Naval History and Heritage Command, 7 September 2012). “Sea Control 77 – Vietnam with CAPT Swartz,” interview by LT Matthew Hipple (CIMSEC Center for International Maritime Security, Podcast, 4 May 2015). Captain Peter M. Swartz, USN (Ret), interview by Dr. Edward Marolda, (Arlington, VA: Center for Naval Analyses, 20 February 2017). Peter Swartz, interview by Don Boroughs (Arlington, VA: CNA Library, 9 November 2018). “Peter M. Swartz: Using Naval History to Develop Maritime Strategy,” article by David F. Winkler, Ph.D., Pull Together: Newsletter of the Naval Historical Foundation (Winter 2019), 11-12. Commander Christopher Nelson, “A Naval Strategist Speaks,” in U.S. Naval Institute Proceedings vol. 145/5/1,395 (May 2019), 56-60. “Peter Swartz Talks Strategy,” The Proceedings Podcast, Episode 78, U.S. Naval Institute, 3 May 2019. “Oral History of Captain Peter M. Swartz USN (Ret),” interviews by Ryan Peeks and Justin Blanton, 24 July and 21 August 2019 (Naval History and Heritage Command: Forthcoming). “Interview with CAPT Peter Swartz, USN (Ret.),” interview by Dr. Thomas Hone (Burke, VA: 16 August 2019, revised 6 September 2019) Incomplete drafts, previously published data sets and working papers “The Navy Joins NATO: The United States Navy and its North Atlantic Allies from V-J Day to Suez: A Study in Transgovernmental Relations.” Chronology and appendices. Last updated 15 February 1995 (in Peter Swartz personal files). “The Maritime Strategy of the 1980s: Threads, Strands and Line,” annotated outline, last updated 12 February 1996 (in Peter Swartz personal files). Publicly available output of Peter Swartz 364 “A Short History of the U.S. Navy in the Cold War (1945-1990): Strategy and Operations,” draft narrative, Last updated 17 February 2014 (in Peter Swartz personal files). Sourcebook: The Maritime Strategy at Sea: 1981-1990: With Selected Chronology, Background, Context, and Supporting Data: 1775-2020, Data base working paper last updated 10 May 2020, 700+ pp. Final update anticipated: 31 Dec 2020 (in Peter Swartz personal files). CNA Historical Paper Series – Numbered fleet operations in the current and future environments: analytical insight from past fleet operational experience, CNA Historical Document Series (written 1996). (Arlington VA: Center for Naval Analyses. forthcoming in 2020 pending clearance for public release). – ‘Forward … from the Start’: U.S. Navy Fleet Deployment Policy, 1775-1996: A New Operational -Level Approach to the Data, for the 1990s and Beyond,” CNA Historical Document Series (written 1996) (Arlington, VA: Center for Naval Analyses, forthcoming in 2020 pending clearance for public release). –The Homeland Defense Role of the US Navy, CNA Historical Document Series (written 1998) (Arlington VA: Center for Naval Analyses, forthcoming in 2020 pending clearance for public release). –Drawing Lines in the Sea: The U.S. Navy Confronts the Unified Command Plan (UCP), 1946-1999, CNA Historical Document Series (written 1999) (Arlington, VA: Center for Naval Analyses, forthcoming in 2020 pending clearance for public release). – With Karin Duggan, Sea Changes: Transforming U.S. Navy Deployment Strategy: 1775-2002, CNA Historical Document Series (written 2002) (Arlington, VA: Center for Naval Analyses, forthcoming in 2020 pending clearance for public release). – Evolution of U.S. Navy Roles in NATO: Always an Important Part of a Larger Whole, CNA Historical Document Series (written 2004) (Arlington, VA: Center for Naval Analyses, forthcoming in 2020 pending clearance for public release). – Piracy and the US Navy, CNA Historical Document Series,” (written 2006) (Arlington, VA: Center for Naval Analyses, forthcoming in 2020 pending clearance for public release). – US Marine Corps Deployment Strategies, CNA Historical Document Series (written 2018) (Arlington, VA: Center for Naval Analyses, forthcoming in 2020 pending clearance for public release). –U.S. Marine Corps in Navy Capstone Strategies and Concepts 1970-2010, CNA Historical Document Series (written 2019) (Arlington VA: Center for Naval Analyses,, forthcoming in 2020 pending clearance for public release). Publicly available output of Peter Swartz 365 Archival collections “The Peter Swartz Collection” (Lubbock TX: The Vietnam Center and Archive, Texas Tech University, added 16 June 2004); unclassified publications related to the Vietnam War and psychological operations. “Working Papers of Captain Peter Swartz USN (Ret), 1970s-1993,” Collection 49 (Washington D.C.: Archives Branch, Operational Archives Section, Naval History and Heritage Command, added 1993); unclassified and classified records related to the development and dissemination of the Maritime Strategy, the 600ship Navy, maritime concepts and strategy, naval arms control, naval force levels and missions, northern flank NATO strategy and related naval topics of the 1980s and early 1990s. “Peter Swartz Working Papers,” 2019 (Arlington, VA: CNA Strategy, Policy, Plans, and Programs (SP3) Division); unclassified publications – mostly historical secondary sources – relating to US Navy deployment strategy, homeland defense, combatant commands, the Unified Command Plan, the Air-Sea Battle concept, carrier aviation, riverine warfare, multinational naval operations, the US Navy and NATO, piracy, the US Navy’s history in Africa, and other naval topics. “Peter Swartz Working papers” (Burke, VA: Home office, 5419 Point Longstreet Way); unclassified files and books – mostly historical – relating to U.S. Navy deployment strategy, homeland defense, and innovation history; the Maritime Strategy, 600-ship Navy, and allied and Soviet navies of the 1980s; U.S. Navy trans-governmental relationships with European naval allies 1945-1956; the U.S. Navy in the Vietnam War; U.S. Navy intercultural relations programs in the 1970s; U.S. Navy declaratory strategy, especially between 1970 and 2016; and related naval topics. Acknowledged contributions to the works of others David Alan Rosenberg, “The Origins of Overkill: Nuclear Weapons and American Strategy, 1945-1960”, in International Security (Spring 1983), 3-71. CAPT Linton F. Brooks USN, “Naval Power and National Security: The Case for the Maritime Strategy,” in International Security (Fall 1986), 58-87. John F. Lehman, Jr., Command of the Seas (New York, NY: Charles Scribner’s Sons, 1988). Norman Friedman, The US Maritime Strategy (London: Jane’s, 1988). Michael A. Palmer, Origins of the Maritime Strategy: American Naval Strategy in the First Postwar Decade (Washington D.C.: Naval Historical Center, 1988). A.D. Baker III, The Naval Institute Guide to Combat Fleets of the World 1988/89: Their Ships, Aircraft and Armament, English language version (Annapolis, MD: The Naval Institute Press, 1988). Publicly available output of Peter Swartz 366 John Allen Williams, “The U.S. Navy under the Reagan Administration and Global Forward Strategy,” in Defense Policy in the Reagan Administration, ed. by William P. Snyder and James Brown (Washington D.C.: National Defense University Press, 1988), 273-303. Thomas C. Hone, Power and Change: The Administrative History of the Office of the Chief of Naval Operations, 1946-1986. (Washington D.C.: Naval Historical Center, 1989). John B. Hattendorf (ed.), “Introduction” to Military Strategy: A General Theory of Power Control by J. C. Wylie, new edition (Annapolis, MD: The Naval Institute Press, 1989). LT James G. Foggo III, “Strategies Navales et Defense de L’Europe: Les Defis Militaires, Politiques et Economiques a la Strategie Maritime Americaine dans les Annees 1990 et Leurs Effets Sur la Securite Europeene,” Thesis for the Diplome d’Etudes Approfondies, Sciences Politiques, Mention Defense, Faculte de Droit et des Sciences Politiques, Universite de Strasbourg III France, 1989. Frederick H. Hartmann, Naval Renaissance: The U.S. Navy in the 1980s (Annapolis, MD: The Naval Institute Press, 1990). John Allen Williams, “The Maritime Strategy in a New Security Era,” in The U.S. Army in a New Security Era ed. by Sam C. Sarkesian and John Allen Williams (Boulder, CO: Lynne Reinner Publishers, 1990), 217-235. Edward Miller, War Plan Orange: The U.S. Strategy to Defeat Japan, 1897-1945 (Annapolis, MD: The Naval Institute Press, 1991). James John Tritten, Our New National Security Strategy: America Promises to Come Back (Westport, CT: Praeger, 1992). James J. Tritten and Paul N. Stockton, Reconstituting America’s Defense: The New National Security Strategy (New York: Praeger, 1992). Michael A. Palmer, On Course to Desert Storm: The United States Navy and the Persian Gulf (Washington D.C.: Naval Historical Center, Department of the Navy, 1992). Paul Stillwell, The Golden Thirteen: Recollections of the First Black Naval Officers (Annapolis MD: Naval Institute Press, 1993) AMB (Ret) Linton F. Brooks, Peacetime Influence Through Forward Naval Presence, Occasional Paper (Alexandria. VA: Center for Naval Analyses, October 1993). Edward J. Marolda, By Sea, Air and Land: An illustrated History of the U.S. Navy and the War in Southeast Asia (Washington D.C.: Naval Historical Center, Department of the Navy, 1994). Jeffrey G. Barlow, Revolt of the Admirals: The Fight for Naval Aviation, 1945-1950 (Washington D.C.: Naval Historical Center, Department of the Navy, 1994). Sean Maloney, Securing Command of the Sea: NATO Naval Planning 1948-1954 (Annapolis, MD: The Naval Institute Press, 1995). Paul T. Mitchell, “Strategic Symbiosis: Bureaucratic versus Geostrategic Factors in the Development of the United States Navy’s Maritime Strategy,” Ph.D. thesis (Kingston, ON, Canada: Queen’s University at Kingston, January 1995). Publicly available output of Peter Swartz 367 M. L. Bowman et al., Multinational Maritime Operations (Norfolk, VA: Naval Doctrine Command, September 1996). Richard A. Russell, Project Hula: Secret Soviet-American Cooperation in the War Against Japan (Washington D.C.: Naval Historical Center, Department of the Navy, 1997). Edward J. Marolda and Robert J. Schneller Jr, Shield and Sword: The United States Navy and he Persian Gulf War (Washington D.C.: Naval Historical Center, Department of the Navy, 1998). Marvin Pokrant, Desert Shield at Sea: What the Navy Really Did (Westport, CT: Greenwood Publishing Group, 1999). Marvin Pokrant, Desert Storm at Sea: What the Navy Really Did (Westport, CT: Greenwood Publishing Group, 1999). Edwin Dorn, Howard D. Graves et al., American Military Culture in the Twenty-First Century (Washington D.C.: CSIS Center for Strategic and International Studies, February 2000); Study Working Group and workshop member. Ronald H. Spector, At War at Sea: Sailors and Naval Combat in the Twentieth Century (New York: Viking, 2001) David M. Key, Jr., Admiral Jerauld Wright: Warrior Among Diplomats: The Life and Recollections of a Supreme Allied Commander (Manhattan, KS: Sunflower University Press, 2001). Norman Polmar, The Naval Institute Guide to the Ships and Aircraft of the U.S. Fleet, Seventeenth Edition (Annapolis, MD: The Naval Institute Press, 2001). Geoffrey Till, Seapower: A Guide for the 21st Century, first edition (London and Portland, OR: Frank Cass, 2004). Terry Pierce, Warfighting and Disruptive Technologies: Disguising Innovation (London, New York: Frank Cass, 2004). Thomas J. Cutler, A Sailor’s History of the U.S. Navy (Annapolis, MD: The Naval Institute Press, 2005) Thomas C. Hone and Trent Hone, Battle Line: The United States Navy, 1919-1939 (Annapolis, MD: The Naval Institute Press, 2006). John B. Hattendorf (ed.), U.S. Naval Strategy in the 1970s: Selected Documents, Naval War College Newport Papers 30 (Newport, RI: Naval War College Press, 2007). John B. Hattendorf (ed.), U.S. Naval Strategy in the 1990s: Selected Documents, Naval War College Newport Papers 27 (Newport, RI: Naval War College Press, 2007). Geoffrey Till, Seapower: A Guide for the 21st Century, second edition (Abingdon, New York: Routledge, 2009). Martin N. Murphy, Small Boats, Weak States, Dirty Money: The Challenge of Piracy (New York: Columbia University Press, 2009). Jeffrey G. Barlow, From Hot War to Cold: The U.S. Navy and National Security Affairs, 1945-1955 (Stanford, CA: Stanford University Press, 2009). Roger R. Ullman, “La Thalassocratie Americaine au XXIeme Siècle,” Master’s thesis (Paris: College Interarmees de Defense (CID), 2009) Publicly available output of Peter Swartz 368 Albert A. Nofi, To Train the Fleet for War: The U.S. Navy Fleet Problems (Newport, RI: The Naval War College Press, 2010). Lesley Anne Warner, “Pieces of Eight: An Appraisal of U.S. Counterpiracy Options in the Horn of Africa,” in Naval War College Review vol. 63, no. 2 (Spring 2010), 61-87. Michael Gerson and Alison Lawler Russell, American Grand Strategy and Seapower: Conference Report, CRM D0025988.A2/Final (Alexandria, VA: Center for Naval Analyses, November 2011). Edward J. Marolda, Ready Seapower: A History of the U.S. Seventh Fleet (Washington D.C.: Naval History and Heritage Command, Department of the Navy, 2012). Geoffrey Till, Asia’s Naval Expansion: An Arms Race in the Making? (Abingdon: Routledge, 2012). Stanley B. Weeks, Scanning the Horizon: Implications for Navy Strategy of National, Joint and other Services’ Strategic Trends, CRM D0026341.A3/Final (Alexandria, VA: Center for Naval Analyses, February 2012). Geoffrey Till, Seapower: A Guide for the 21st Century, third edition (Hoboken, NJ: Taylor & Francis Ltd., 2013). Timothy S. Wolters, Information at Sea: Shipboard Command and Control in the U.S. Navy, From Mobile Bay to Okinawa (Baltimore, MD: The Johns Hopkins University Press, 2013) Frank Leith Jones, Blowtorch: Robert Komer, Vietnam, and American Cold War Strategy (Annapolis, MD: The Naval Institute Press, 2013) Larissa Forster, Influence Without Boots on the Ground: Seaborne Crisis Response, Naval War College Newport Papers 39 (Newport, RI: Naval War College Press, January 2013). John T. Hanley, Jr., “Creating the 1980s Maritime Strategy and Implications for Today,” Naval War College Review vol. 67, no. 2 (Spring 2014), 11-29. Norman Friedman, Fighting the Great War at Sea: Strategy. Tactics and Technology (Barnsley: Seaforth Publishing, 2014). David F. Winkler, Ready Then. Ready Now. Ready Always. More Than a Century of Service by Citizen Sailors: The United States Navy Reserve (Washington DC: Navy Reserve Centennial Book Committee, 2014). Peter Haynes, Toward a New Maritime Strategy: American Naval Thinking in the Post- Cold War Era (Annapolis, MD: The Naval Institute Press, 2015). John Darrell Sherwood, War in the Shallows: U.S. Navy Coastal and Riverine Warfare in Vietnam, 1965-1968 (Washington D.C.: Naval History and Heritage Command, Department of the Navy, 2015). Corbin Williamson, “We Are Still One Fleet: U.S. Navy Relations with the British, Canadian, and Australian Navies, 1945-1953,” Ph.D. dissertation (Columbus, OH: Ohio State University, 2015). Nilanthi Samaranayake, “US-China-India Triangle in the Indian Ocean Region: A US Perspective,” in United States-China-India Strategic Triangle in the Indian Ocean Region: Challenges and Opportunities, ed. by Sithara Fernando (New Delhi: Knowledge World, 2015), 27-52. Publicly available output of Peter Swartz 369 Diego A. Ruiz-Palmer, “A Maritime Renaissance: Naval Power in NATO’s Future,” in Routledge Handbook of Naval Strategy and Security, ed. by Joachim Krause and Sebastian Bruns (London, New York: Routledge, 2016), 364-380. Amund Lundesgaard, “Controlling the Sea and Projecting Power: U.S. Navy Strategy and Force Structure After the Cold War,” Ph.D. dissertation (Oslo: Oslo Media, 2016). David F. Winkler, Incidents at Sea: American Confrontation and Cooperation with Russia and China, 1945-2016 (Annapolis, MD: The Naval Institute Press, 2016). Steven Wills, “The Effect of the Goldwater-Nichols Act of 1986 on Naval Strategy, 1987-1994,” in Naval War College Review vol. 69, no. 2 (Spring 2016), 21-40. Sebastian Bruns, U.S. Naval Strategy and National Security: The Evolution of American Naval Power (London: Routledge, 2017). Don Boroughs, The Story of CNA: Civilian Scientists in War and Peace (Arlington, VA: CNA, 2017) Steven Wills, “Replacing the Maritime Strategy: The Change in Naval Strategy from 1989-1994,” Ph.D. dissertation (Athens, OH: Ohio University, April 2017). Zisis Fotakis, “The Maritime Dimension of Greek-American Relations, 1947-1989” (Piraeus: Hellenic Naval Academy, 2017). Ryan W. French and Peter Dombrowski, “Exercise BALTOPS: Reassurance and Deterrence in a Contested Littoral,” in Military Exercises: Political Messaging and Strategic Impact, ed. by Beatrice Heuser, Tormod Heier and Guillaume Lasconjarias (Rome: NATO Defense College, 2018), 187-210. John Lehman, Oceans Ventured: Winning the Cold War at Sea (New York: W. W. Norton, 2018) Geoffrey Till, Seapower: A Guide for the 21st Century, fourth edition (Abingdon, New York: Routledge, 2018). Michael J. Crawford, ed. Needs and Opportunities in the Modern History of the U.S. Navy (Washington D.C.: Naval History and Heritage Command, Department of the Navy, 2018) James Bergeron, “Commanding the Alliance at Sea: A Reflection on the History of NATO Maritime C2,” in Cutting the Bow Wave 2019 (Norfolk, VA: CJOS COE), 21-28. Ambjorn Adomeit, “A Fleet of Compromises: The Canadian Navy’s Cold War Submarine Posture,” M.A. thesis (Royal Military College of Canada, May 2018). Claude Gerard Berube, “Born to Rule the Seas: The Navy During Andrew Jackson’s Presidency and the Genesis of American Naval Power,” Ph.D. dissertation (Leeds: University of Leeds, May 2018) LCDR Colin Roberts, “The Navy,” in in Movement and Maneuver Culture and the Competition for Influence Among the U.S. Military Services, ed. by Rebecca Zimmerman, Kimberly Jackson, Natasha Lander, Colin Roberts, Dan Madden and Rebeca Orrie (Santa Monica, CA: Rand Corporation, 2019), 47-75. Joshua Tallis, The War for Muddy Waters: Pirates, Terrorists, Traffickers, and Maritime Insecurity (Annapolis, MD: The Naval Institute Press, 2019). Publicly available output of Peter Swartz 370 Timothy A. Walton, Ryan Boone, Harrison Schramm, Sustaining the Fight: Resilient Maritime Logistics for a New Era (Washington D.C.: CSBA Center for Strategic and Budgetary Assessments, April 2019). MIDN 1/C Anthony G. Iannacone USN, “Concentrate the Fleet A.T.-Mahan-Style U.S. Naval Institute Proceedings prize essay (June 2019), online edition. Jeremy Stöhs, “The Evolution of European Naval Power 1989-2019: Strategy – Force Structure – Operations,” Ph.D. dissertation (Christian-Albrechts-Universität zu Kiel, July 2019). Steven T. Wills, “The Navy Strategic Enterprise: A Reappraisal,” paper delivered at 2019 McMullen Naval History Symposium (Annapolis, M.D.: U.S. Naval Academy, 19 September 2019). Isabel Campbell, “A Sense of Insecurity: How Reports of 1946 Russian Submarine Movements Influenced Canada’s Cold War,” paper delivered at 2019 McMullen Naval History Symposium (Annapolis, MD: U.S. Naval Academy, 20 September 2019). Michael Haas, “Red Perimeter Defeated: U.S. Naval Supremacy, Competitive Adaptation, and the Third Battle of the Atlantic, 1946-1981,” Ph.D. dissertation (ETH Zurich and Kiel University/ISPK, 2019) Brad Dismukes, “The Vietnam War: The Role of Russia and China Then and Now,” presentation at the Conference on the Naval War in Vietnam: Vietnamese and American Perspectives (Newport, RI: Naval War College, 7 February 2020) Jyoti Ranjan Pradhan, „Carrier as the Capital Ship of U.S. Navy – Relevance and Need Today; Future Carrier Relevance in Terms of Numbers, Due to Rise of Near-Peer Threat (China),“ MA Thesis: Tel Aviv University, March 2020). Joshua Tallis, Maritime Security and Great Power Competition: Maintaining the US-led International Order (Arlington VA: CNA, May 2020) Brad Dismukes, “The Return of Great Power Competition: Cold War Lessons about Strategic Anti-Submarine Warfare and Defense of Sea Lines of Communication,” Naval War College Review, vol. 73, no. 7 (Summer 2020). Udo Sonnenberger, “NATO Maritime Planning in the 1980s,” Ph.D. dissertation (Martin-Luther-University Halle-Wittenberg, forthcoming). Narushige Michishita, Fighting the Cold War in the Pacific: Maritime Strategy, Peacetime Operations, and the U.S.-Japan Alliance (forthcoming). CAPT Bryan Leese USN, “Tooth to Jowl: Navy Operational Intelligence in the Cold War,” Ph.D. dissertation (London: King’s College London, forthcoming). Edward Marolda, Admirals Under Fire: The U.S. Navy and the Vietnam War (forthcoming). Ryan Peeks, Aircraft Carrier Requirements and Strategy, 1977- 2001 (Washington D.C.: Naval History and Heritage Command, forthcoming in 2020) Steven T. Wills, Strategy Shelved: The Collapse of the Cold War Navy Strategy System (Annapolis, MD: The Naval Institute Press, forthcoming in 2021) Publicly available output of Peter Swartz 371 Thomas Hone and Curtis Utz, History of the Office of the Chief of Naval Operations, 1915-2015 (Washington D.C.: Naval History and Heritage Command, forthcoming in 2020) Thomas Hone, Haze Gray Ships Upon Wine-Dark Seas: A History of the U.S. Sixth Fleet (Washington DC: Naval History and Heritage Command, forthcoming). Joseph Petrucelli, “Doctrinal Change and the U.S. Navy, 1946-2016,” (Ph.D. dissertation: George Mason University, forthcoming) Marton Peri, “Samuel Huntington and the Navy,” (Ph.D. dissertation: Budapest: Pazmany Peter Catholic University, forthcoming).CDR Rachel Gosnell, „How Have US Arctic Strategies Affected US Interests in the Arctic Region and Regional Security Dilemma Dynamics,“ (Ph.D. dissertation: University of Maryland, forthcoming) Rear Admiral (Ret) Philip A. Dur, Between Land and Sea: A Sailor’s Log (forthcoming) Book jacket contributions Kiem Do and Julie Kane, Counterpart: A South Vietnamese Naval Officer’s War (Annapolis, MD: The Naval Institute Press, 1998). James C. Rentfrow, Home Squadron: The U.S. Navy on the North Atlantic Station (Annapolis, MD: The Naval Institute Press, 2014). Edward J. Marolda (ed.), Combat at Close Quarters: An illustrated History of the U.S. Navy in the Vietnam War (Annapolis, MD: The Naval Institute Press, 2018). Hal M. Friedman (ed.), War in the American Pacific and East Asia, 1941-1972 (Lexington, KY: University Press of Kentucky, 2019). Norman Polmar, Thomas A. Brooks, George E. Fedoroff, Admiral Gorshkov: The Man who Challenged the U.S. Navy (Annapolis, MD: The Naval Institute Press, 2019). Marvin Pokrant, New Principles of War: Enduring Truths with Timeless Examples (Lincoln, NE: University of Nebraska Press, forthcoming in 2021). Committee, board, discussion group memberships “Commanders Cabal” (CDR Norman Mosher convener), late 1970s. Navy Discussion Group (CDR/CAPT James Stark convener), Mid 1980s. Secretary of the Navy’s Advisory Committee on Naval History, 1985-1987. Navy Study Group (Dr. David Rosenberg convener), October 1992-November 2003. Naval War College Review, Editorial Board, 2006-present. Strategy Discussion Group (Founding co-chair with CAPTs (Ret) R. Robinson Harris and E. Richard Diamond: 2008-2019; Participant 2019- ). Publicly available output of Peter Swartz 372 Selected graduate-level academic courses and classes taught “Roles and Missions of the Armed Forces” (Washington D.C.: The George Washington University Elliott School of International Affairs, 1997-2000). “The Maritime Dimension of National Strategy,” SWAMOS Summer Workshop on Analysis of Military Operations and Strategy (Ithaca NY: Cornell University, 23-24 July 2001). “U.S. Navy Strategy and Concepts” (Washington D.C.: The Johns Hopkins University Nitze School of Advanced International Studies, Center for Strategic Studies, 13 April 2015). With Professors Sebastian Bruns and Edward Keynes, “Naval History and Strategy: German and U.S. Perspectives” (Christian-Albrechts-Universität zu Kiel, June 2015). Conference conceptualized and convened U.S. Navy Forward Presence Bicentennial Symposium (Center for Naval Analyses, 21 June 2001) Military operations (Vietnam, 1969) Vietnamese Navy Fourth Coastal Zone Giang Thanh river & Vinh Te canal Cua Lon river, Ca Mau peninsula Phu Quoc island Gulf of Thailand and islands Publicly available output of Peter Swartz 373

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Abstract

The 21st century is witnessing renewed tension as conflicts between major powers, serious concerns about future security alliances and global, even generational, security policy challenges arise. In the light of this, naval forces and maritime security, and understanding their underlying strategic rationale, are gaining momentum and importance. What are the roles and missions of naval forces, and how have states and the institutions themselves sought to frame their goals and methods? This book brings together experts from the United States, Europe, and Asia to reflect on how maritime and naval strategy is conceptualised and how it has been used. It celebrates the life and work of Peter M. Swartz, Captain (US Navy) ret., who since contributing to ‘The Maritime Strategy’ of the 1980s as a young Pentagon officer, has been a mentor, friend, intellectual beacon and the foremost purveyor of maritime expertise to the global naval community. With contributions by James Bergeron, Sebastian Bruns, Seth Cropsey, Larissa Forster, Michael Haas, John Hattendorf, Peter Haynes, Andrzej Makowski, Amund Lundesgaard, Narushige Michishita, Martin Murphy, Sarandis Papadopoulos, Nilanthi Samaranayake, Jeremy Stöhs, Eric Thompson, Geoffrey Till, Sarah Vogler, Steve Wills.

Zusammenfassung

Großmachtkonflikte, die Zukunft von sicherheitspolitischen Institutionen sowie transnationalen Generationenherausforderungen bergen eine neue globale Unsicherheit. Vor diesem Hintergrund bekommen maritime Sicherheit und Seestreitkräfte sowie deren Einordnung im außenpolitischen Werkzeugkasten eine zunehmende Bedeutung. Was sind die Rollen und Einsatzaufgaben von Seemacht, und wie haben Staaten und ihre Institutionen maritime Ziele, Mittel und Wege konzeptualisiert? Dieser Sammelband bringt ausgewiesene Experten aus den USA, Europa und Asien zusammen, die ihre Perspektive auf maritime Strategie teilen. Das Buch dient gleichzeitig die Festschrift für Peter M. Swartz, Kapitän zur See a.D. der US-Marine, der seit seiner Arbeit als einer der Autoren der „Maritime Strategy“ (1980er) als Mentor, Freund, intellektueller Leuchtturm und vor allen Dingen als Spiritus Rektor wesentlich zur Schärfung des Verständnisses von Seestrategie in den globalen Beziehungen beigetragen hat. Mit Beiträgen von James Bergeron, Sebastian Bruns, Seth Cropsey, Larissa Forster, Michael Haas, John Hattendorf, Peter Haynes, Andrzej Makowski, Amund Lundesgaard, Narushige Michishita, Martin Murphy, Sarandis Papadopoulos, Nilanthi Samaranayake, Jeremy Stöhs, Eric Thompson, Geoffrey Till, Sarah Vogler, Steve Wills.