Stefan Profit, IV.1 Introduction in:

Oliver Holtemöller (Ed.)

How Can We Boost Competition in the Services Sector?, page 87 - 88

1. Edition 2017, ISBN print: 978-3-8487-4676-7, ISBN online: 978-3-8452-8902-1,

Bibliographic information
Past Reforms in the Services Sector and their Effects Introduction (Stefan Profit) Dr Stefan Profit, Deputy Director-General Macroeconomic Development, Analysis and Projections, Federal Ministry for Economic Affairs and En‐ ergy (BMWi) In this part, we will focus on past reforms in the service sector and their effects. Progress in structural reforms in Germany Source: Service Sector Regulation Indicators, OECD (own representation) Figure 4.1.1 shows that we have experienced significant reforms in the service sector in Germany over the past 20 years. The solid lines are Ger‐ man, the dashed lines are OECD averages. The red colour line is 1995, the green colour line is 2013. What you see is that we have deregulation in all areas. If you look at the comparison with the OECD average, we are be‐ IV IV.1 Figure 4.1.1: 87 low average in many areas. But not in professional services where we’re slightly above average. We are also slightly above average in postal ser‐ vice and in retail where I think numbers are difficult to interpret, because a lot of the issues in that field are in the responsibility of the Länder. The second talk we will have is on the transport sector and structural reforms. It adds very well to Henrik Enderlein’s talk which was, in gener‐ al, on political economy issues of structural reforms. The example here is transportation. Paolo Mengano holds a master’s degree from Bocconi Uni‐ versity in Milan, is currently a consultant with the World Bank on global productivity issues and is also a junior researcher in the Competitiveness Research Network CompNet which contains very interesting data that has been used by the ECB and is going to be hosted and continued by IWH. Paolo will apply these data and present his work on Product Market Deregulation in the transport sector. National regulation of specific professions Source: Regulated professions database, EU Commission The contribution by Davud Rostam-Afschar is on the crafts sector, partic‐ ularly on the reforms in Germany in the 2000s. I put up two example occupations here just to show two things: We do not only have different regulations in occupations across countries, but also across crafts professions in Germany. It is a quite heterogeneous pic‐ ture, which sometimes makes interpretation difficult. We will have Davud Rostam-Afschar give a presentation on a natural experiment. As you can see in the maps we have a lot of heterogeneity, and heterogeneity is good for researchers because they can make use of it and infer evidence about the effects of reforms, which he does in the paper. Figure 4.1.2: IV Past Reforms in the Services Sector and their Effects 88

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‘How Can We Boost Competition in the Services Sector?’ is a key question in the process of creating a more effi-cient economic environment in Germany. This book contains a collection of conference contributions on service sector reforms from members of academic institutions, ministries, the EU Commission and other organisations. The conference consisted of a keynote on the importance and implementation of structural reforms in Europe and two panels that dealt with the evaluation of past reforms in the services sector and the potential scope and effects of further reforms.

Since the 1990s, productivity growth in Germany and other Member States of the European Union has been significantly lower than in the US. The development of productivity growth in the services sector is estimated to account for two thirds of this widening gap. The European Commission advocated reforms in the services sector in its country-specific recommendations for Germany. At a conference in Berlin in July 2016, experts from various fields presented and discussed studies on service sector reforms.

With contributions by

Oliver Holtemöller, Brigitte Zypries, Joaquim Nunes de Almeida, Dirk Palige, Henrik Enderlein, Stefan Profit, Davud Rostam-Afschar, Paolo Mengano, Oliver Arentz, Erik Canton, Jochen Andritzky


„Wie können wir den Wettbewerb im Dienstleistungssektor stärken?“ Dies ist eine Schlüsselfrage für eine größere Leistungsfähigkeit des ökonomischen Umfelds in Deutschland. Dieses Buch versammelt Konferenzbeiträge von Mitgliedern wissenschaftlicher Einrichtungen, von Ministerien, der EU-Kommission und anderen Organisationen zu Reformen im Dienstleistungssektor. Die Konferenz umfasste einen Eröffnungsvortrag zur Bedeutung und Durchführung von Strukturreformen in Europa und zwei Gesprächsforen zur Bewertung vergangener Reformen im Dienstleistungssektor und zur möglichen Reichweite sowie zu den möglichen Auswirkungen weiterer Reformen.

Die Zunahme der Produktivität ist seit den 1990er Jahren sowohl in Deutschland als auch in anderen Ländern der Europäischen Union deutlich geringer als in den USA. Es wird geschätzt, dass die Entwicklung des Produktivitätszuwachses im Dienstleistungssektor für zwei Drittel dieses zunehmenden Abstandes verantwortlich ist. Die Europäische Kommission spricht sich in ihren länderspezifischen Empfehlungen zu Deutschland für Reformen in diesem Sektor aus. Auf einer Konferenz im Juli 2016 in Berlin stellten Experten aus unterschiedlichen Bereichen Studien zu solchen Reformen vor und diskutierten deren Ergebnisse.

Mit Beiträgen von

Oliver Holtemöller, Brigitte Zypries, Joaquim Nunes de Almeida, Dirk Palige, Henrik Enderlein, Stefan Profit, Davud Rostam-Afschar, Paolo Mengano, Oliver Arentz, Erik Canton, Jochen Andritzky