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Leonie Vierck, Pedro A. Villarreal, A. Katarina Weilert (Ed.)

The Governance of Disease Outbreaks, page 1 - 9

International Health Law: Lessons from the Ebola Crisis and Beyond

1. Edition 2017, ISBN print: 978-3-8487-4328-5, ISBN online: 978-3-8452-8600-6, https://doi.org/10.5771/9783845286006-1

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Vierck | Villarreal | Weilert [eds.] The Governance of Disease Outbreaks International Health Law: Lessons from the Ebola Crisis and Beyond Nomos 2.Auflage International Health Law: Lessons from the Ebola Crisis and Beyond The Governance of Disease Outbreaks Nomos Leonie Vierck | Pedro A. Villarreal A. Katarina Weilert [eds.] BUT_Weilert_4328-5.indd 3 11.10.17 13:11 The Deutsche Nationalbibliothek lists this publication in the Deutsche Nationalbibliografie; detailed bibliographic data are available on the Internet at http://dnb.d-nb.de ISBN 978-3-8487-4328-5 (Print) 978-3-8452-8600-6 (ePDF) British Library Cataloguing-in-Publication Data A catalogue record for this book is available from the British Library. ISBN 978-3-8487-4328-5 (Print) 978-3-8452-8600-6 (ePDF) Library of Congress Cataloging-in-Publication Data Vierck, Leonie / Villarreal, Pedro A. / Weilert, A. Katarina The Governance of Disease Outbreaks International Health Law: Lessons from the Ebola Crisis and Beyond Leonie Vierck / Pedro A. Villarreal / A. Katarina Weilert (eds.) 393 p. Includes bibliographic references. ISBN 978-3-8487-4328-5 (Print) 978-3-8452-8600-6 (ePDF) 1st Edition 2017 © Nomos Verlagsgesellschaft, Baden-Baden, Germany 2017. Printed and bound in Germany. This work is subject to copyright. All rights reserved. No part of this publication may be reproduced or transmitted in any form or by any means, electronic or mechanical, including photocopying, recording, or any information storage or retrieval system, without prior permission in writing from the publishers. Under § 54 of the German Copyright Law where copies are made for other than private use a fee is payable to “Verwertungs gesellschaft Wort”, Munich. No responsibility for loss caused to any individual or organization acting on or refraining from action as a result of the material in this publication can be accepted by Nomos or the editors. BUT_Weilert_4328-5.indd 4 11.10.17 13:11 5 Content Foreword 11 The Concept of the Book Leonie Vierck, Pedro A. Villarreal, and A. Katarina Weilert 13 Framing The Field Ebola Epidemic 2014-2015: Taking Control or Being Trapped in the Logic of Failure – What Lessons Can Be Learned? Michael Marx 43 The Response to the West African Ebola Outbreak (2014-2016): A Failure of Global Health Governance? Wolfgang Hein 61 The Changing Structure of Global Health Governance Mateja Steinbrück Platise 83 The Case Law of International Public Health and Why its Scarcity is a Problem Leonie Vierck 113 The Role of the Human Right to Health The Right to Health in International Law – Normative Foundations and Doctrinal Flaws A. Katarina Weilert 145 Extraterritorial Human Rights Obligations of States in the Event of Disease Outbreaks Elif Askin 175 6 The Real Versus the Ideal in NGO Governance: Enacting the Right to Mental Healthcare in Liberia During the 2014-2016 Ebola Epidemic Hunter Keys, Bonnie Kaiser, André den Exter 213 International and Regional Organizations and the Securitization of Health The World Health Organization’s Governance Framework in Disease Outbreaks: A Legal Perspective Pedro A. Villarreal 243 Fostering Regional Health Governance in West Africa: The Role of the WAHO Edefe Ojomo 273 Ebola and Securitization of Health: UN Security Council Resolution 2177/2014 and Its Limits Ilja Richard Pavone 301 Combining the WHO’s International Health Regulations (2005) with the UN Security Council’s Powers: Does it Make Sense for Health Governance? Robert Frau 327 Governance Beyond the Law The Limits of the International Health Regulations: Ebola Governance, Regulatory Breach, and the Non-Negotiable Necessity of National Healthcare Susan L. Erikson 351 The Governance of Infectious Diseases. An International Relations Perspective Christian R. Thauer 373 7 List of Abbreviations AAAQ Availability, Accessibility, Affordability, Quality app. application(s) ASEAN Association of Southeast Asian Nations ASEOWA African Union Support to the Ebola Outbreak in West Africa AU African Union CDC Centers for Disease Control and Prevention CESCR Committee on Economic, Social and Cultural Rights doc. document(s) DSU Dispute Settlement Understanding of the World Trade Organization ECHR European Convention of Human Rights ECJ European Court of Justice ECOWAS Economic Community of West African States ECtHR European Court of Human Rights et al. et alia/aliae/alii (and others) et seq(q). et sequentia/sequentes (and the following) etc. et cetera ETU Ebola Treatment Unit(s) EU European Union EVD Ebola Virus Disease FCTC Framework Convention on Tobacco Control fn. footnote(s) G7 Group of 7 GC General Comment (of the Committee on Economic, Social and Cultural Rights) GHG Global Health Governance Global Fund The Global Fund to Fight AIDS, Tuberculosis and Malaria GOARN World Health Organization’s Global Outbreak Alert and Response Network HIV/AIDS Human Immunodeficiency Virus/Acquired Immunodeficiency Syndrome, correspondingly IACHR Inter-American Commission of Human Rights IACtHR Inter-American Court of Human Rights 8 IASC Inter-Agency Standing Committee ibid. ibidem (in that same place) ICAO International Civil Aviation Organization ICCPR International Covenant on Civil and Political Rights ICESCR International Covenant on Economic, Social and Cultural Rights ICH International Conference on the Harmonisation of Technical Requirements for Registration of Pharmaceuticals for Human Use ICJ International Court of Justice IHG International Health Governance IHL International Humanitarian Law IHR International Health Regulations ILC International Law Commission ILO International Labour Organization ILOAT International Labour Organization Administrative Tribunal IMF International Monetary Fund IO International Organization(s) IPA International Public Authority MDG Millenium Development Goals MERS Middle East Respiratory Syndrome MINUSTAH United Nations Stabilization Mission in Haiti MSF Médecins Sans Frontières NGO Non-Governmental Organization(s) no. number(s) NTD Neglected Tropical Disease(s) OCP Onchocerciasis Control Programme OECD Organization for Economic Cooperation and Development para. paragraph(s) PCA Permanent Court of Arbitration PEPFAR US President’s Emergency Plan for AIDS Relief PHEIC Public Health Emergency of International Concern PPP Public-private partnership(s) R2P Responsibility to Protect RCDC Regional Centre for Disease Control SARS Severe Acute Respiratory Syndrome 9 SDG Sustainable Development Goal(s) SP Samaritan’s Purse TRIPs Trade-Related Aspects of Intellectual Property Rights (TRIPs) UDHR Universal Declaration of Human Rights UNAIDS Joint United Nations Program on HIV/AIDS UNDP United Nations Development Programme UN-HABITAT United Nations Human Settlements Programme UNICEF United Nations Children’s Emergency Fund UNMEER United Nations Mission for Ebola Emergency Response UNMIL United Nations Mission in Liberia UNSC United Nations Security Council US United States of America USD US-Dollar(s) vol. volume(s) WAHO West African Health Organisation WB World Bank WHA World Health Assembly WHO World Health Organization WTO World Trade Organization

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Abstract

This edited volume is directed at experts in international law, practitioners in international institutions, and other experts who would like to familiarize themselves with the legal framework of infectious disease governance. Using the West African Ebola crisis as a case study, this book is part of a larger collaborative project on international health governance.

Project partners are the Forschungsstätte der Evangelischen Studiengemeinschaft e.V. - Institute for Interdisciplinary Research and the Max Planck Institute for Comparative Public Law and International Law (MPIL). The authors explain the context and substantive legal framework of the Ebola crisis, while also highlighting its human rights aspects, institutional law (such as the debate on the securitization of health), and the limits to a purely legal approach to the subject. The authors are experts in public international law, public health, political science, and anthropology.

With contributions by

Elif Askin, Susan L. Erikson, André den Exter, Robert Frau, Wolfgang Hein, Bonnie Kaiser, Hunter Keys, Michael Marx, Edefe Ojomo, Ilja Richard Pavone, Mateja Steinbrück Platise, Christian R. Thauer, Leonie Vierck, Pedro A. Villarreal, A. Katarina Weilert

Zusammenfassung

Der Sammelband richtet sich an ein Fachpublikum von Völkerrechtlern, Praktikern in internationalen Institutionen und anderen Experten, die sich mit den rechtlichen Rahmenbedingungen der internationalen Governance ansteckender Krankheiten vertraut machen möchten. Fallbeispiel ist die Ebola-Krise in Westafrika.

Der Band geht aus einem breiter angelegten Heidelberger Kooperationsprojekt zur „International Health Governance“ der Forschungsstätte der Evangelischen Studiengemeinschaft e.V. - Institut für interdisziplinäre Forschung (FEST) und des Max-Planck-Instituts für ausländisches öffentliches Recht und Völkerrecht (MPIL) hervor. Die Autoren beleuchten Kontext und materiellen Rechtsrahmen des Themas, auch unter Hervorhebung menschenrechtlicher Bezüge, institutionelles Recht („Gesundheit als Sicherheitsrisiko?“) sowie die Grenzen eines genuin rechtlichen Ansatzes. Die Autoren sind den Disziplinen Völkerrecht, Public Health, Politikwissenschaften und Anthropologie zuzuordnen.

Mit Beiträgen von

Elif Askin, Susan L. Erikson, André den Exter, Robert Frau, Wolfgang Hein, Bonnie Kaiser, Hunter Keys, Michael Marx, Edefe Ojomo, Ilja Richard Pavone, Mateja Steinbrück Platise, Christian R. Thauer, Leonie Vierck, Pedro A. Villarreal, A. Katarina Weilert