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Oliver C. Ruppel, Kathrin M. Scherr, Alexander D. Berndt (Ed.)

Assessing Progress in the Implementation of Zimbabwe's New Constitution, page 1 - 12

National, Regional and Global Perspectives

1. Edition 2017, ISBN print: 978-3-8487-4154-0, ISBN online: 978-3-8452-8374-6, https://doi.org/10.5771/9783845283746-1

Series: Recht und Verfassung in Afrika - Law and Constitution in Africa, vol. 32

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Recht und Verfassung in Afrika | 32 Law and Constitution in Africa Assessing Progress in the Implementation of Zimbabwe’s New Constitution Oliver C. Ruppel | Kathrin M. Scherr | Alexander D. Berndt [eds.] National, Regional and Global Perspectives Nomos [africa] Herausgeber/Editorial Board: Ulrich Karpen, Professor of Law, University of Hamburg | Hans-Peter Schneider, Professor of Law, University of Hannover | Oliver C. Ruppel, Professor of Law, University of Stellenbosch | Hartmut Hamann, Professor of Law, Freie University Berlin & Hamann Rechtsanwälte, Stuttgart Wissenschaftlicher Beirat/Scientific Advisory Council: Laurie Ackermann, Justice (Emeritus), Constitutional Court of South Africa, Johannesburg | Jean-Marie Breton, Professor of Law (Emeritus), Honorary Dean, University of French West Indies and Guyana | Gerhard Erasmus, Professor of Law (Emeritus), Associate, Trade Law Centre, Stellenbosch | Norbert Kersting, Professor of Political Sciences, University of Muenster | Hans Hugo Klein, RiBVerfG a.D., Professor of Law, University of Göttingen | Salvatore Mancuso, Professor of Law, Chair Centre for Comparative Law in Africa, University of Cape Town | Yvonne Mokgoro, Justice, South African Law Reform and Development Commission, Pretoria | Lourens du Plessis, Professor of Law, Northwest University, Potchefstroom | Werner Scholtz, Professor of Law, University of the Western Cape, Bellville | Nico Steytler, Professor of Law, Int. Association of Centers for Federal Studies, Bellville | Hennie A. Strydom, Professor of Law, University of Johannesburg | Christoph Vedder, Professor of Law, University of Augsburg | Gerhard Werle, Professor of Law, Humboldt University Berlin | Johann van der Westhuizen, Justice, Constitutional Court of South Africa, Johannesburg | Reinhard Zimmermann, Professor of Law, Managing Director of the Max Planck Institute for Comparative and International Private Law, Hamburg Recht und Verfassung in Afrika – Band/Volume 32 Law and Constitution in Africa BUT_Ruppel_4154-0.indd 2 23.03.17 07:57 Oliver C. Ruppel | Kathrin M. Scherr Alexander D. Berndt [eds.] Assessing Progress in the Implementation of Zimbabwe’s New Constitution National, Regional and Global Perspectives Nomos BUT_Ruppel_4154-0.indd 3 23.03.17 07:57 Die Deutsche Nationalbibliothek verzeichnet diese Publikation in der Deutschen Nationalbibliografie; detaillierte bibliografische Daten sind im Internet über http://dnb.d-nb.de abrufbar. ISBN 978-3-8487-4154-0 (Print) ISBN 978-3-8452-8374-6 (ePDF) 1. Auflage 2017 © Nomos Verlagsgesellschaft, Baden-Baden 2017. Gedruckt in Deutschland. Alle Rechte, auch die des Nachdrucks von Auszügen, der fotomechanischen Wiedergabe und der Übersetzung, vorbehalten. Gedruckt auf alterungsbeständigem Papier. BUT_Ruppel_4154-0.indd 4 23.03.17 07:57 5 Contents Foreword, by HE Ulrich Klöckner, Former Ambassador of the Federal Republic of Germany to the Republic of Zimbabwe 7 Preface, by the Editors 9 About the Contributors 11 PART I: The Conference Welcome 15 HE Georg Schmidt, Ambassador and Director-General, Sub-Saharan Africa and Sahel, German Federal Foreign Office Keynote Address 18 Hon. Adv. Jacob Francis Mudenda Conference Report 25 Alexander Berndt and Kathrin Maria Scherr PART II: Constitutional Reform in Africa: Lessons from other Countries The Constitution-making Process in Zambia 39 Hon. Justice Annel M. Silungwe Constitutionalism and Constitutional Reform: Selected Aspects from a Regional Perspective 51 Oliver C. Ruppel The Legitimacy of Constitution-making from an International Law Perspective 84 Rüdiger Wolfrum PART III: Assessing Progress in the Implementation of Zimbabwe’s Constitution Executive Compliance with Zimbabwe’s New Constitution 101 Derek Matyszak Progress in the Implementation of the New Zimbabwean Constitution 128 Irene Petras 6 The Role of the Church(es) in the Promotion of the Rule of Law and Democracy in Zimbabwe 136 Fr Oskar Wermter SJ The Judicial Enforcement of Socio-Economic Rights under Zimbabwe’s 2013 Constitution: Opportunities and Challenges 162 Khulekani Moyo PART IV: The Independent Commissions in the New Zimbabwean Constitution The Role of Constitutional Commissions in Zimbabwe’s New Constitution 189 Teresa P. Mugadza The Independent Commissions: Success or Failure? 197 V. A. Ingham-Thorpe and B. D. Crozier The Role of Independent Commissions with Particular Reference to the Zimbabwe Human Rights Commission 231 E. H. Mugwadi Appendix Constitution of Zimbabwe Amendment (No. 20) Act, 2013 249 7 Foreword HE Ulrich Klöckner Former Ambassador of the Federal Republic of Germany to the Republic of Zimbabwe The Conference ‘Assessing Progress in the Implementation of Zimbabwe’s New Constitution’, jointly organized by the Max Planck Foundation, Heidelberg, SAPES Trust, Harare, and DROP, Stellenbosch, in Harare on 23 March 2015 underlined once more the urgent need to finalize one of the most important and outstanding issues on Zimbabwe’s political agenda: the adjustment of Zimbabwe’s laws to the prerogatives of the new constitution. The adoption of this constitution by an overwhelming majority of Zimbabweans in the March 2013 referendum constituted a huge step forward for democracy in Zimbabwe by providing a whole new legal framework. Significant clarifications and improvements were developed and inscribed into the constitution about issues that have been at the centre of intensive academic – and sometimes bitter political – debates for years. The speedy and comprehensive adoption of these new constitutional provisions would foster peace and stability in Zimbabwe. Their implementation in day-to-day life would strengthen the rule of law and, thereby, have a considerable positive impact on the recovery of Zimbabwe’s economy. The new constitution also forms an indispensable framework for the European Union’s and Germany’s future relations with Zimbabwe. The conference was meant to highlight publicly this important fact once again. The conference brought together eminent constitutional experts from Zimbabwe, many of whom had already participated in the academic and political process that eventually led to the constitution’s adoption. They were joined by external experts from the Southern African region and Germany who offered a welcome outside and peer view. As a result, an intensive and fruitful disputation and exchange ensued, identifying outstanding issues and offering advice for next steps to be taken. The conference was also graced by the presence of the Speaker of Parliament, the Honourable Jacob Mudenda, who, in his opening address, acknowledged the importance of the constitution’s implementation for the future work of Zimbabwe’s legislative body. I am very glad that this conference brought together for the first time three strong partners to outline and organize this important event. The 8 Foreword Max Planck Foundation has gained a worldwide reputation for providing assistance and expertise to many states and institutions experiencing important changes in their constitutional law. The Harare conference has been their first project in Southern Africa. Prof. Oliver Ruppel’s Development and Rule of Law Programme (DROP) at the University of Stellenbosch develops and provides policy recommendations and tools that guide policy-makers in the implementation of reforms designed to strengthen the rule of law. SAPES Trust, Harare, under the leadership of Dr Ibbo Mandaza, looks back at more than twenty-five years of experience as one of the finest research and policy-study institutes in Southern Africa. SAPES Trust has also established itself as the prime venue for open and frank discussions on political, social and economic issues in Zimbabwe. I very much hope these three partners will continue with their own resources and initiative their fruitful and successful co-operation, keep the conference’s important issues high on their common agenda, and co-organize similar events in the coming years. Harare 23 March 2015 9 Preface In 2013, Zimbabwe adopted a new Constitution to replace its first ‘Lancaster House’ Constitution at independence in 1980. The new Constitution officially came into force in 2013 after being overwhelmingly approved in a referendum. Thereafter, Zimbabwean policy-makers, the judiciary, civil society organizations and other stakeholders embarked on operationalizing and implementing the new Constitution. On 23 and 24 March 2015, a conference entitled Assessing Progress in the Implementation of Zimbabwe’s New Constitution: National, Regional and Global Perspectives was organized by the Max Planck Foundation for International Peace and the Rule of Law (MPFPR), Heidelberg, Germany, in collaboration with the Development and Rule of Law Programme (DROP), University of Stellenbosch, South Africa. The conference was funded by the German Federal Foreign Office, Berlin, Germany, and held at the premises of the Southern African Political Economy Series (SAPES) Trust in Harare, Zimbabwe. For their support in organizing the conference in Harare, a special thank you goes to Dr Ibbo Mandaza (SAPES Trust) and the German Ambassador to Zimbabwe at the time, HE Ulrich Klöckner. Looking at current developments in Zimbabwe, the publication is a timely and careful response to some of the opportunities and challenges that the country is facing: it will serve not only as source of academic legal material. The contributions are an outflow from the dialogue that was started at the afore mentioned conference and reflect insight, drawing from comparative perspectives, on the role of the civil and security services in a constitutional democracy and the role of institutions such as independent commissions and related institutions in entrenching a democratic culture. We are particularly grateful to the contributors, who include policy-makers, members of the judiciary, and constitutional law experts, both Zimbabwean and international. The content of the articles, including any errors or omissions that may remain, is the sole responsibility of the individual contributors. The editors have made every effort to acknowledge the use of copyright material. HE Ambassador Georg Schmidt, Director-General, Sub-Saharan Africa and Sahel, German Federal Foreign Office, needs to be thanked for his support concerning this publication. 10 Preface This publication will continue to foster an open intellectual and legal dialogue on the Constitution and what it means in daily practice for the people of Zimbabwe. Constitution-building is a process that aims at constructing the foundations of democracy and the rule of law. At the same time it can contribute to international co-operation, foreign investment and economic development. The Editors August 2016 11 About the Contributors Berndt, Alexander Research Fellow, Max Planck Foundation for International Peace and the Rule of Law, Germany. Crozier, Brian Senior legal scholar, Lecturer, University of Zimbabwe Ingham-Thorpe, Val Director of Veritas, Harare, Zimbabwe Matyszak, Derek Lawyer and political commentator, Harare, Zimbabwe Moyo, Dr Khulekani Head of Research at the South African Human Rights Commission, Senior Researcher, Mandela Institute, University of the Witwatersrand Mugadza, Teresa Pearl Legal consultant, former Deputy Chair of the Zimbabwe Anti-Corruption Commission Mugwadi, Elasto H. Chairperson of the Zimbabwe Human Rights Commission Petras, Irene Executive Director, Zimbabwe Lawyers for Human Rights Ruppel, Prof. Dr Oliver C. Professor of Law and Director, Development and Rule of Law Programme (DROP), Faculty of Law, University of Stellenbosch, South Africa Scherr, Dr Kathrin Maria Head of Sub-Saharan Africa Operations, Max Planck Foundation for International Peace and the Rule of Law, Germany Silungwe, Justice Annel Musenga Former Chief Justice of Zambia, Chairman of the Technical Committee on Drafting the Zambian Constitution Wermter, Fr Oskar Pastoral Department, Communications, IMBISA, Zimbabwe Wolfrum, Prof. Dr Rüdiger Managing Director of the Max Planck Foundation for International Peace and the Rule of Law, Germany. Judge and former President, International Tribunal for the Law of the Sea (ITLOS)

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Abstract

This publication is a timely and careful response to some of the opportunities and challenges that Zimbabwe is currently facing. The contributions are an outflow from the conference held in March 2015 in Harare, entitled „Assessing Progress in the Implementation of Zimbabwe’s New Constitution: National, Regional and Global Perspectives“.

Also by drawing from comparative perspectives, the contributors, who include policy-makers, members of the judiciary, and constitutional law experts, both Zimbabwean and international, reflect among others on the challenge of constitutional alignment, the role of the civil and security services in a constitutional democracy and the role of institutions such as independent commissions and related institutions in entrenching a democratic culture and the rule of law. This publication aims to foster an open intellectual and legal dialogue on Zimbabwe’s new Constitution and what it means in daily practice for the people of Zimbabwe.

With contributions by:

Alexander Berndt, Brian D. Crozier, Val A. Ingham-Thorpe, Ulrich Klöckner, Derek Matyszak, Khulekani Moyo, Jacob Francis Mudenda, Teresa P. Mugadza, Elasto H. Mugwadi, Irene Petras, Oliver C. Ruppel, Kathrin Maria Scherr, Georg Schmidt, Annel M. Silungwe, Oskar Wermter SJ, Rüdiger Wolfrum

Zusammenfassung

Mit Blick auf aktuelle Entwicklungen und die neue Verfassung in Simbabwe, beschäftigt sich der Band mit den Chancen und Herausforderungen, mit denen das Land konfrontiert ist. Die Beiträge resultieren aus der im März 2015 in Harare abgehaltenen Konferenz "Überlegungen zum Fortschritt bei der Umsetzung der neuen Verfassung Simbabwes: Nationale, regionale und globale Perspektiven".

Die Autoren, darunter politische Entscheidungsträger, Vertreter der Justiz, sowie simbabwische und internationale Verfassungsrechtsexperten reflektieren u. a. über die Herausforderung der verfassungsrechtlichen Ausrichtung, die Rolle der Zivilgesellschaft und der Sicherheitsdienste in einer konstitutionellen Demokratie und die Rolle von Institutionen und unabhängigen Kommissionen bei Etablierung und Erhalt von demokratischen Werten und Rechtsstaatlichkeit. Damit soll ein offener intellektueller und rechtlicher Dialog über die neue Verfassung gefördert und dessen Bedeutung für die Menschen in Simbabwe aufgezeigt werden.

Mit Beiträgen von:

Alexander Berndt, Brian D. Crozier, Val A. Ingham-Thorpe, Ulrich Klöckner, Derek Matyszak, Khulekani Moyo, Jacob Francis Mudenda, Teresa P. Mugadza, Elasto H. Mugwadi, Irene Petras, Oliver C. Ruppel, Kathrin Maria Scherr, Georg Schmidt, Annel M. Silungwe, Oskar Wermter SJ, Rüdiger Wolfrum