Content

Active corruption in:

Ina Kubbe

Corruption in Europe, page 219 - 220

Is it all about Democracy?

1. Edition 2015, ISBN print: 978-3-8487-2347-8, ISBN online: 978-3-8452-6451-6, https://doi.org/10.5771/9783845264516-219

Series: Comparative Politics - Vergleichende Politikwissenschaft, vol. 6

Bibliographic information
Index Active corruption 37 age 91, 149, 157, 170, 174, 178 anti-corruption norms 75, 78 attitude 181 attitudes 43, 169, 177, 182 bathtub model 56 bathtub model of corruption 99, 160, 172, 176 behavior-focused definitions 30 Case studies 48, 182 Catholicism 84, 139, 172 Catholics 123, 165, 177 Coleman’s bathtub model 54 collective action 97, 167, 171 collective effects 174 collective explanandum 54 Communism 88 communist legacies 88, 132 communist past 87, 132, 139, 165, 172, 177 consequences of corruption 23 Control of Corruption Index 61, 62 corruption 26, 43 Corruption Perceptions Index 61, 63, 102 cross-level variables 159 cultural approaches 138, 160, 162, 163, 165, 166 culture 43, 88, 89, 166, 178 definition of corruption 28, 33 degree of democracy 78, 118, 138, 163, 172, 177 democracy 51 democratic culture 180 democratic histories 87 democratic history 132 duration of democracies 86 duration of democracy 173, 179 economic development 113, 137, 162, 172 economic factors 74, 113 employment status 150, 157, 169, 178 equality 180 Esser 55 EU-membership 59, 115, 137, 172 Europe 180 European countries 102, 177 European states 51, 58 European Union 59, 76, 162, 177, 181 experimental data 69 experimental research 71 Experimental studies 61 Formal institutions 43 forms of corruption 35 GDP 74, 113 gender 80, 90, 148, 157, 170, 174, 178 gender equality 138 grand corruption 36 historical factors 139, 175 historical institutionalism 44, 160, 166, 176 informal institutions 45 institutional theories 181 International Country Risk Guide 61, 64 international integration 75, 162 interpersonal trust 94, 151, 157, 169, 173, 178 Islam 84, 139, 172 justification of bribery 98, 153, 157, 169, 173, 178 level of income 93, 151, 157, 174, 178 logic of aggregation 56, 174 logic of selection 55, 173 logic of situation 55 macro level 51, 100 measuring corruption 61, 71, 72 micro level 51 multilevel analysis 99, 178 multilevel models 141, 154, 168 Muslims 129, 165, 177 norms 44, 166, 169 Orthodox 125, 165, 177 Orthodoxy 84, 139, 172 panel analysis 136 panel-data research design 100 Passive corruption 37 perception of corruption 51, 144, 168, 178 personal characteristics 89 Petty corruption 36 political factors 77, 117 principal-agent theories 39 Protestantism 84, 162, 172 219 Protestants 127, 138 public corruption 36 public-office-centered definition 33 quantitative studies 48 random intercept model 154 rational-choice 94 rational-choice approaches 38, 46, 55, 76, 92, 170, 181 religion 84, 123, 138 satisfaction with the financial situation 95, 153, 157, 169, 173, 178 situational logic 173 social norms 87 socio-cultural factors 83, 123 socio-cultural variables 165 sociological approaches 42 Transparency International 22, 62, 63 typologies of corruption 68 unemployed people 92 values 43, 44, 94, 169, 177, 182 women in parliaments 80, 121, 138, 162, 172, 177 World Bank 62 World Values Survey 61, 143 years of democracy 132 Index 220

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Abstract

International studies often point to Europe for low levels of corruption. However, recent scandals in nearly all European states illustrate that corruption continues to be on the rise. The author investigates the causes of corruption in Europe. The analysis indicates that a country’s contextual conditions such as the economic development, the degree and duration of democracy or historical factors like the post-communist past strongly influence Europe’s level of corruption. Furthermore, corruption is likely experienced differently depending on interpersonal trust and the justification of bribery. The findings reveal that a bundle of factors adding up to a specific “democratic culture” hinders the growth of corruption by generating strong democratic institutions and fostering citizen norms and values aimed at monitoring and sanctioning corrupt actors. As a result, democracy promotion is the best remedy against corruption spread in Europe.

Zusammenfassung

Auch wenn europäische Staaten vergleichsweise geringe Korruptionswerte aufzeigen, verdeutlichen Skandale immer wieder, dass Korruption ein großes Problem darstellt, mit dem auch Europa stark zu kämpfen hat. Die Autorin untersucht daher die Ursachen von Korruption auf dem europäischen Kontinent. Verschiedene Analysen zeigen, dass Kontextfaktoren eines Landes wie dessen ökonomischer Entwicklungsstand, der Demokratisierungsgrad und die jeweilige Dauer oder historische Faktoren wie die kommunistische Vergangenheit das Auftreten von Korruption stark beeinflussen.

Darüber hinaus spielen interpersonales Vertrauen und die Rechtfertigung von Bestechungszahlungen eine erhebliche Rolle in der Wahrnehmung von Korruption. Insgesamt zeigen die Befunde, dass letztendlich eine „demokratische Kultur“ der Schlüssel im Kampf gegen Korruption in Europa ist. Diese fördert demokratische Institutionen sowie Normen und Werte, die darauf abzielen, korrupte Akteure zu kontrollieren und sanktionieren.