Content

Appendix in:

Ina Kubbe

Corruption in Europe, page 207 - 218

Is it all about Democracy?

1. Edition 2015, ISBN print: 978-3-8487-2347-8, ISBN online: 978-3-8452-6451-6, https://doi.org/10.5771/9783845264516-207

Series: Comparative Politics - Vergleichende Politikwissenschaft, vol. 6

Bibliographic information
Appendix Appendix A: Literature Overview 207 Au tho r ( ye ar) De pe nd en t v ari ab le( s); op era tio na liz ati on , nu mb er of ob ser va tio ns (n) Ind ep en de nt Va ria ble (s) Le ve l o f An aly sis Ma in Re sul ts Lim ita tio ns Hu ste d (19 99 ) Co rru pti on (C PI 19 96 ) n= 36 Ec on om ic (na tio na l w eal th, inc om e d ist rib uti on ), p oli tical (g ov ern me nt siz e) an d cu ltu ral va ria ble s ( po we r dis tan ce, in div idu ali sm -co llec tiv ism , m asc uli nit y-f em inin ity , u nc ert ain ty av oid an ce) Ma cro Le ve l Le ve l o f e co no mi c d ev elo pm en t w ith m ost si gn ific an t c orr ela tio n; sig nif ica nt int era cti on in co lle cti vis t a nd hi gh po we r-d istan ce co un trie s; siz e o f g ov ern me nt, di str ibu tio n o f in co me an d i nd ivi du ali sm ar e n ot sig nif ica nt Cr oss -se cti on al an aly sis ; O nly m acr o l ev el; Sm all nsam ple ; W orl d-s am ple Tr eis ma n (20 00 ) Co rru pti on (C PI 19 96 , 1 99 7,1 99 8; Ind ex by B usi ne ss Inter na tio na l fo r th e e arly 19 80 s) n= 54 -85 Ec on om ic (G DP pe r c ap ita , na tur al res ou rce en do wme nts ), p oli tic al (de mo cra cy , fe de ral st ruc tur e, leg al sys tem ) c ult ura l v ari ab les (et hn o-l ing uis tic di vis ion , co lon ial tra dit ion s, r eli gio us aff ilia tio n) Ma cro Le ve l Co un trie s w ith Pr ote sta nt tra dit ion s, h ist ori es of Br itis h r ule , mo re de ve lop ed ec on om ies , a nd (p rob ab ly) hi gh er im po rts we re les s c orr up t; f ed era l s tat es are m ore co rru pt; cu rre nt de gre e o f d em oc rac y w as no t s ign ific an t, b ut lon g e xp osu re to de mo cra cy sh ow s l ow er co rru pti on Cr oss -se cti on al an aly sis ; O nly m acr o l ev el; Ce rta in ind ica tor s a re mi ssi ng (e .g. ed uc atio n); W orl d-s am ple Sa nd ho ltz an d K oe tzl e (20 00 ) Co rru pti on (C PI 19 96 ) n= 50 Po liti cal -ec on om ic str uc tur e (av era ge in co me , st ate co ntro l o f th e e co no my , str en gth of de mo cra tic in sti tut ion s, e xp eri en ce wi th de mo cra tic ru le; de gre e o f int eg rat ion in to the in ter na tio na l e co no my ) c ult ura l va ria ble s ( Pro tes tan tis m, Br itis h c olo nia l e xp eri en ce) Ma cro Le ve l Co rru pti on is hi gh er the lo we r th e a ve rag e i nc om e l ev el, th e gre ate r th e e xte nt of sta te co ntr ol of the ec on om y, the w eak er are de mo cra tic no rm s a nd in sti tut ion s, t he lo we r th e d eg ree of int eg rat ion in th e w orl d e co no my , a nd th e l ow er the sh are of the po pu lat ion w ith Pr ote sta nt rel igi ou s a ffi lia tio n Cr oss -se cti on al an aly sis ; O nly m acr o l ev el; W orl d-s am ple Appendix 208 Au tho r ( ye ar) De pe nd en t v ari ab le( s); op era tio na liz ati on , nu mb er of ob ser va tio ns (n) Ind ep en de nt Va ria ble (s) Le ve l o f An aly sis Ma in Re sul ts Lim ita tio ns Ge tz an d Vo lke ma (20 01 ) Co rru pti on as m ed iator va ria ble (C PI 19 97 ) n= 50 -16 3 Ec on om ic (G DP pe r c ap ita , co nsu me r in cre ase , b ure au cra cy ) a nd cu ltu ral va ria ble s (po we r d ist an ce, un cer tai nty av oid an ce, co lle cti vis m, ma scu lin ity ) Ma cro Le ve l Ne ga tiv e r ela tio nsh ip be tw een ec on om ic ad ve rsi ty an d w eal th is me dia ted by co rru pti on ; E co no mi c a dv ers ity is po sit ive ly rel ate d t o c orr up tio n; co rru pti on is in ve rse ly rel ate d t o w eal th; Un cer tai nty av oid an ce mo de rat ed re lat ion shi p b etw een ec on omi c a dv ers ity an d c orr up tio n, wh ere as po we r d ist an ce an d u ncer tai nty av oid an ce are po sit ive ly ass oc iat ed w ith co rru pti on Cr oss -se cti on al an aly sis ; O nly m acr o l ev el; Do es no t in clu de po liti cal va ria ble s; W orl dsam ple Mo nti no la an d J ack ma n (20 02 ) Co rru pti on (I nd ex by Bu sin ess In ter na tio na l for 19 80 -83 ; n =6 6); CP I f or 19 80 -85 ; 19 88 -92 ) n= 51 Po liti cal (d em oc rac y, go vern me nt siz e) an d e co no mi c va ria ble s ( GD P/ pe r c ap ita , OP EC -m em be rsh ip) Ma cro Le ve l Po liti cal co mp eti tio n r ed uc es co rru pti on ; C orr up tio n i s l ow er in dic tat ors hip s t ha n i n c ou ntr ies th at ha ve pa rtia lly de mo cra tiz ed ; g ov ern me nt siz e d oe s n ot sys tem ati cal ly aff ect co rru ptio n, bu t m em be rsh ip of OP EC do es; co rru pti on is m ore pe rva siv e i n l ow -in co me co un trie s Cr oss -se cti on al an aly sis ; O nly m acr o l ev el; Do es no t in clu de so cio cu ltu ral va ria ble s De cay ing da ta (19 80 /90 s); W orl dsam ple Pa lda m (20 02 ) Co rru pti on (C PI 19 99 ) n =1 00 Ec on om ic va ria ble s ( lev el an d g row th of rea l in co me pe r c ap ita , th e i nfl ati on ra te, eco no mi c f ree do m ind ex ) an d p oli tic al va ria ble s (de mo cra cy ) Ma cro Le ve l Ec on om ic tra nsi tio n f rom po or to ric h s tro ng ly red uc es co rrup tio n, wh ile pe rio ds of hig h i nfl ati on in cre ase co rru pti on ; Co un trie s w ith m uc h s tat e r eg ula tio n h av e l arg e p ote nti al for ren t s eek ing , sh ow hi gh le ve ls of co rru pti on ; D em oc rac y d ecre ase s c orr up tio n Cr oss -se cti on al an aly sis ; O nly m acr o l ev el; On ly eco no mi c v ari ab les an d d em oc rac y; W orl d-s am ple Appendix A: Literature Overview 209 Au tho r ( ye ar) De pe nd en t v ari ab le( s); op era tio na liz ati on , nu mb er of ob ser va tio ns (n) Ind ep en de nt Va ria ble (s) Le ve l o f An aly sis Ma in Re sul ts Lim ita tio ns Al t a nd La sse n (20 03 ) Co rru pti on (1 99 9 Sta te ho use re po rte rs` pe rce pti on of co rru ptio n) n= 45 So cio -de mo gra ph ic an d c ultur al va ria ble s ( urb an ism , ed uc ati on , in co me ), p oli tical an d e co no mi c v ari ab les (si ze of go ve rnm en t, b urea uc rac y, ren t-s eek ing , e xpo sur e t o c om pe titi on , re gu lat ory bu rde n a nd in tru siv ene ss, ob ser va bil ity , tr an spa ren cy , tr ust , e lec tor al insti tut ion s) Mi cro Le ve l Po liti cal in sti tut ion s h av e i nfl ue nc e o n p rev ale nc e o f c orr up tio n i n A me ric an st ate s; lar ge r g ov ern me nts ar e a sso cia ted wi th hig he r d eg ree s o f p oli tic al co rru pti on Cr oss -se cti on al an aly sis ; O nly m icr o l ev el; Fo cu s o n A me ric an sta tes ; S ma ll n -sa mp le; W orl d-s am ple Xi n a nd Ru de l (2 00 4) Co rru pti on (C PI 19 99 , 20 01 ) n= 84 -95 Ec on om ic (G DP pe r c ap ita ), po liti cal (s tat e s tre ng th = de mo cra cy an d g ov ern me nt ex pe nd itu res ), s oc iode mo gra ph ic an d c ult ura l v ari ab les (p op ula tio n s ize , p oli tica l c ult ure ) Ma cro Le ve l Bu rea uc rat ic arr an ge me nts su pp lyi ng of fic ial s g rea t d isc ret ion an d l ittl e a cco un tab ilit y, po ve rty , la rge po pu lat ion s, s ma ll pu bli c s ect ors , a nd ea rlie r h ist ori cal ex pe rie nc es wi th au toc rat ic rul es ma y i nc rea se co rru pti on Cr oss -se cti on al an aly sis ; O nly m acr o l ev el; W orl d-s am ple Sh en an d W illi am son (20 05 ) Co rru pti on (C oC 20 02 , C PI 20 04 ) n= 91 Cu ltu ral (e thn o-l ing uis tic fra cti on ali zat ion ), p oli tic al (de mo cra cy , p res s f ree do m, sta te str en gth ) a nd ec on omi c v ari ab les (e ne rgy co nsum pti on , e co no mi c f ree do m) Ma cro Le ve l De mo cra cy an d p res s f ree do m ha s a po sit ive ef fec t o n p ercei ve d l ev el of co rru pti on co ntr ol; st ate st ren gth ha s a di rec t po sit ive ef fec t; o pe nn ess of th e e co no my ha s a po sit ive eff ect ; e thn o-l ing uis tic fr act ion ali zat ion ha s b oth di rec t a nd in dir ect ne ga tiv e e ffe cts Str uc tur al eq ua tio nba sed m od el (cr oss sec tio na l-a na lys is) ; On ly ma cro le ve l; W orl d-s am ple Appendix 210 Au tho r ( ye ar) De pe nd en t v ari ab le( s); op era tio na liz ati on , nu mb er of ob ser va tio ns (n) Ind ep en de nt Va ria ble (s) Le ve l o f An aly sis Ma in Re sul ts Lim ita tio ns At kin son an d Se ife rlin g (20 06 ) Co rru pti on (ite m: “H ow wi de spr ead do yo u thi nk br ibe ta kin g a nd co rru pti on is in th is co un try ?” fro m 3. wa ve of W orl d V alu es Su rve y ( 19 95 -19 98 )) n= 38 .06 3 o bse rva tio ns wi thi n 3 3 c ou ntr ies Na tio na l e co no mi c ( na tio na l we alt h, pe rso na l in co me ) an d c ult ura l v ari ab les (r eli gio n) Ma cro an d M icro Le vel Mi cro Le ve l: r eli gio n i nfl ue nc es the pe rce pti on of co rru pti on ; ed uc ati on an d i nc om e w ith ne ga tiv e e ffe ct; be tte r e du cat ed an d w eal thi er cit ize ns of an y s tat e h av e a te nd en cy to un de rest im ate th e p rev ale nc e o f c orr up tio n. Ma cro Le ve l: r eli gio us gro up w ith si gn ific an t e ffe ct on in divid ua l p erc ep tio ns of co rru pti on ; in Pr ote sta nt co un trie s, c orrup tio n i s p erc eiv ed as re lat ive ly low ; in w eal thi er co un trie s the m ore ed uc ate d a re inc lin ed to pe rce ive le ss co rru pti on . On ly a f ew in de pe nde nt va ria ble s ( we alt h an d c ult ure ); W orl d- Sa mp le Se lda dy o a nd Ha an (2 00 6) Co rru pti on (C on tro l o f Co rru pti on In de x 20 04 ) n= 19 3 Ec on om ic (e. g. GD P, tra de ), s oc iode mo gra ph ic (e. g. ed uc ati on , in eq ua lity ) bu rea uc rat ic, re gu lat ory (e. g. lab or ma rke t re gu lat ion ), p oli tic al (e. g. po liti cal lib ert y, fed era lis m) , re ligio us an d g eo -cu ltu ral va riab les (e .g. la titu de , S can dina via n l eg al ori gin ) Ma cro Le ve l “R eg ula tor y c ap aci ty” co nsi sti ng of ce rta in va ria ble s ( rul e o f law , ju dic ial in de pe nd en ce an d i mp art ial co urt , g ov ern me nt eff ect ive ne ss, G DP pe r c ap ita , p oli tic al sta bil ity , re gu lat ory qu ali ty, bu rea uc rat ic qu ali ty, la w an d o rde r, l ab or ma rke t reg ula tio n, int ern ati on al tra de , in ter na l c on flic t, a nd se co nd ary sch oo l e nro lm en t) a s m ost ro bu st de ter mi na nt of co rru pti on ; oth er rob ust de ter mi na nts : p op ula tio n d en sit y ( –), Sc an din avia n l eg al ori gin (– ), e thn ic ten sio n ( +) , so cia lis m leg al ori gin (+ ), p ort ion of po pu lat ion w ith no re lig ion (+ ), e thn ic co nfl ict (+ ), i llit era cy ra te (–) , g ov ern me nt wa ge (+ ), s ou nd m on ey (ar ea of Fra ser in de x); (+ ), l ati tud e ( –), fu el ex po rt ( +) , p rim ary sch oo l e nro llm en t (+ ), e xte rna l d eb t (– ), p res ide nti al (–) , an d p ort ion of fe ma le in lab or for ce (–) . Cr oss -se cti on al an aly sis ; O nly m acr o l ev el; W orl d-S am ple Appendix A: Literature Overview 211 Au tho r ( ye ar) De pe nd en t v ari ab le( s); op era tio na liz ati on , nu mb er of ob ser va tio ns (n) Ind ep en de nt Va ria ble (s) Le ve l o f An aly sis Ma in Re sul ts Lim ita tio ns Gl aes er an d Sa ks (20 06 ) Co rru pti on (co nv ict ion s f rom th e U. S. Jus tic e D ep art me nt Re po rt t o Co ng res s o n t he A ctiv itie s a nd O pe rat ion s of the Pu bli c I nte gri ty Se cti on ; 19 89 , 1 99 9, 20 02 re po rts , a dd itio na l in for ma tio n o n t he nu mb er of co nv ict ion s b y s tat e an nu all y f rom 19 76 to 20 02 ) n= 10 00 0 Ed uc ati on an d e co no mi c ch ara cte ris tic s ( e.g . g ros s sta te pro du ct, go ve rnm en t em plo ym en t, i nc om e, inco me in eq ua lity , in teg rity ind ex , lo cal go ve rnm en ts, rac ial he ter og en eit y, eco no mi c f ree do m (go ve rnm en t siz e a nd re gu lat ion ), s ma ll bu sin ess su rvi va l in de x, sta te leg isl ato rs pe r c ap ita , tax re ve nu e, un ion ize d wo rke rs, ur ba n p op ula tio n sha re, Mi cro Le ve l Sta tes w ith hi gh er lev els of ed uc ati on , w eal th an d m ore ba lan ced di str ibu tio n o f th at we alt h s ho w low er de gre es of co rrup tio n. In co ntr ast , e thn ic he ter og en eit y a nd un eq ua l e arn ing s pro mo te co rru pti on ; w eak ne ga tiv e r ela tio nsh ip be tw een co rrup tio n a nd ec on om ic de ve lop me nt in a s tat e. On ly mi cro le ve l; F ocu s o n A me ric an st ate s Sh ab bir an d An wa r (20 07 ) Co rru pti on (C PI 20 04 ) n= 41 Ec on om ic (ec on om ic fre edo m, gl ob ali zat ion , le ve l o f ed uc ati on , dis trib uti on of in co me an d av era ge le ve l o f in co me ) an d n on -ec on om ic fac tor s (pr ess fr eed om , d em oc rac y an d s ha re of po pu lat ion af fili ate d w ith pa rtic ula r r eli gio n) Ma cro Le ve l Ec on om ic de ter mi na nts ar e n eg ati ve ly rel ate d t o c orr up tio n ex cep t d ist rib uti on of in co me no ne co no mi c d ete rm ina nts ar e no t s ign ific an tly ex pla ini ng th e v ari ati on s i n t he le ve l o f c orrup tio n Cr oss -se cti on alan aly sis ; O nly m acr o l ev el; Fo cu s o n d ev elo pin g co un trie s Appendix 212 Au tho r ( ye ar) De pe nd en t v ari ab le( s); op era tio na liz ati on , nu mb er of ob ser va tio ns (n) Ind ep en de nt Va ria ble (s) Le ve l o f An aly sis Ma in Re sul ts Lim ita tio ns Mo can (20 08 ) Co rru pti on (In ter na tio na l C rim e Vi cti m Su rve y, CP I, Bu sin ess In ter na tio na l, Int ern ati on al Co un try R isk G uid e, 19 94 -19 96 ) n= 50 Ec on om ic (un em plo ym en t rat e); po liti cal (s tre ng th of co un try `s ins titu tio ns) , so cio -de mo gra ph ic va ria ble s (ge nd er, in co me , e du cat ion , ma rita l s tat us, ci ty siz e) Mi cro an d Ma cro Le ve l Hi gh ly ed uc ate d a nd hi gh -in co me in div idu als ha ve hi gh er ex po sur e t o b ein g a ske d f or a b rib e b y a go ve rnm en t o ffi cia l; Ma les ar e m ore fr eq ue nt tar ge ts of bri be ry; Li vin g i n l arg er cit ies al so inc rea ses th e r isk of ex po sur e t o b rib ery ; S tre ng th of ins titu tio ns in the co un try re du ces th e e xte nt of co rru pti on as we ll a s a de cre ase in th e u ne mp loy me nt rat e. Cr oss -se cti on alan aly sis ; S ma ll n -sa mp le; W orl d-S am ple Bi llg er an d Go el (20 09 ) Co rru pti on (C PI, 20 01 -20 03 ) n= 99 Ec on om ic (ec on om ic pro spe rity , e co no mi c f ree do m) , po liti cal (d em oc rac y, go vern me nt siz e) an d s oc iocu ltur al (de gre e o f u rba niz atio n) va ria ble s Ma cro Le ve l La rge r g ov ern me nts an d g rea ter ec on om ic fre ed om do no t re du ce co rru pti on , b ut hig he r d eg ree s o f d em oc rac y d ecr eas e i t On ly a f ew in dic ato rs; On ly ma cro le ve l; Cr oss -se cti on al an aly sis ; W orl d-S am ple Go el an d Ne lso n (20 10 ) Co rru pti on (C PI 19 95 -19 97 ; 19 98 -20 00 ; 20 01 -20 03 ) n =1 00 Hi sto ric al ( a s y ear s o f n atio na l in de pe nd en ce) , g eo gra ph ica l (e .g. ph ysi cal la nd are a, urb an iza tio n), po liti cal (de mo cra cy ; s ize an d s co pe of go ve rnm en t) v ari ab les Ma cro Le ve l Siz e a nd sc op e o f g ov ern me nt sig nif ica ntl y d ete rm ine th e d egre e o f c orr up tio n; his tor ica l in sti tut ion al ine rtia in ol de r co un trie s a nd ne w ren t-s eek ing op po rtu nit ies in yo un ge r n atio ns can en co ura ge co rru pti on , w hil e c ert ain ge og rap hic fa ctor s m ay de cre ase co rru pti on Cr oss -se cti on al an aly sis ; O nly m acr o l ev el; Ne gle ct of eco no mi c va ria ble s; W orl d-S am ple Appendix A: Literature Overview 213 Au tho r ( ye ar) De pe nd en t v ari ab le( s); op era tio na liz ati on , nu mb er of ob ser va tio ns (n) Ind ep en de nt Va ria ble (s) Le ve l o f An aly sis Ma in Re sul ts Lim ita tio ns Lit tva y a nd Do nic a (20 11 ) Co rru pti on (In ter na tio na l C ou ntr y Ri sk Gu ide , 19 84 -20 04 ) n= 18 6 Ec on om ic (G DP , tr ad e op en ne ss, fu el ex po rts , m inera l e xp ort s, g ov ern me nt wa ge s), po liti cal (d em oc rat ic pe rfo rm an ce, st ab ilit y, co mm on la w, fe de ral ist go ve rnm en t s tru ctu re, go vern me nt inv en tio n) an d a few so cio -cu ltu ral va ria ble s (et hn ic ten sio n, pe rce nt Pro tes tan ts, B riti sh co lon ial pa st) Ma cro Le ve l Po or de mo cra tic an d e co no mi c p erf orm an ces as w ell as re d tap e a re ass oc iat ed w ith hi gh le ve ls of co rru pti on ; h igh ly pa id go ve rnm en t o ffi cia ls an d t rad e o pe nn ess in cre ase co rru pti on wh ile oi l p rod uc tio n n ot; B riti sh co lon ies ar e m ore co rru pt; Br itis h c olo nia l e xp eri en ce is a m ean ing les s i nd ep en de nt va riab le of co rru pti on ; e thn ic div ers ity , o r e ve n s tab le lev els of eth nic te nsi on s h av e l ess of an im pa ct on co rru pti on th at ch an ge s i n e thn ic ten sio n l ev els ; g ov ern me nt sta bil ity in a co un try is as soc iat ed w ith sh ort te rm su rge s o f c orr up tio n t ha t dim ini she s i n t he lo ng IC RG as de pe nd en t va ria ble ; O nly m acr o lev el; Inc lud es on ly a f ew so cio -cu ltu ral va ria ble s; W orl d-S am ple O' Co nn or an d Fis ch er (20 12 ) Co rru pti on (C PI 19 95 -20 08 ; In ter ne t Ce nte r f or Co rru pti on for th e p eri od s 1 98 0 t o 19 85 an d 1 98 8 t o 19 92 ) n= 59 So cie tal V alu es (se lfex pre ssi on , ra tio na l v alu es) ; we alt h; po liti cal in sti tut ion s (de gre e o f d em oc rac y; go vern me nt siz e) Mi cro an d Ma cro Le ve l Se lfex pre ssi on so cie tal va lue s, w eal th, an d g ov ern me nt siz e sig nif ica ntl y i nfl ue nc e t he le ve l o f c orr up tio n. “W ith in soc ieti es” , w eal th is on ly a m arg ina lly si gn ific an t p red ict or of co rrup tio n – in co ntr ast to “b etw een co un trie s.” Inc lud es on ly on e e co no mi c v ari ab le (G DP ); Sm all nsam ple ; W orl d-S am ple Appendix 214 Appendix B: Independent Variables ECONOMIC FACTORS Operationalization Source Economic Development GDP / per capita, PPP (Constant International USD) (logarithmized). World Bank, OECD EU-Membership Dummy-variable (1/0) European Union POLITICAL FACTORS Operationalization Source Degree of Democracy Freedom-House-Index / Imputed Polity IV Freedom House; Polity IV Women in Parliaments Percentage of parliamentary seats in a single or lower chamber held by women. World Bank; United Nations SOCIO-CUL- TURAL FAC- TORS Operationalization Source Percentage of Catholics Catholics as percentage of population Worldmark Encyclopedia of the Nations; Statistical Abstract of the World; United Nations Percentage of Orthodox Orthodox as percentage of population Worldmark Encyclopedia of the Nations; Statistical Abstract of the World; United Nations Percentage of Protestants Protestants as percentage of population Worldmark Encyclopedia of the Nations; Statistical Abstract of the World; United Nations Percentage of Muslims Muslims as percentage of population Worldmark Encyclopedia of the Nations; Statistical Abstract of the World; United Nations HISTORICAL FACTORS Operationalization Source Years of Democracy The number of consecutive years since 1930 the system had been democratic as of 2000 Quality of Government Dataset (2015) Communist Past Dummy-Variable: 1) If a country has a communist past; 0) if not Worldmark Encyclopedia of the Nations; Statistical Abstract of the World; United Nations SOCIO-DEMO- GRAPHIC CHARACTER- ISTICS Operationalization Source Appendix B: Independent Variables 215 ECONOMIC FACTORS Operationalization Source Gender Question text:Categories: -5 Missing; Unknown -4 Not asked in survey -3 Not applicable -2 No answer -1 Don´t know 1 Male 2 Female World Values Survey Age Question text:“Year of birth” Categories: -5 Missing; Unknown -4 Not asked in survey -3 Not applicable -2 No answer -1 Dont know World Values Survey Employment Status Question text:“Are you employed now or not? IF YES: About how many hours a week? If more than one job: only for the main job.” Categories: -5 Missing; Unknown -4 Not asked in survey -3 Not applicable -2 No answer -1 Don´t know 1 Full time 2 Part time 3 Self employed 4 Retired 5 Housewife 6 Students 7 Unemployed 8 Other World Values Survey Level of Income Question text:“Here is a scale of incomes. We would like to know in what group your household is, counting all wages, salaries, pensions and other incomes that come in. Just give the letter of the group your household falls into, before taxes and other deductions.” Categories: By decides for your society, 1= Lowest decide, 10= Highest decide World Values Survey VALUES AND NORMS Operationalization Source Level of Interpersonal Trust Question text:“Generally speaking, would you say that most people can be trusted or that you need to be very careful in dealing with people?” Categories: 1) Most people can be trusted 0) Can´t be too careful World Values Survey ATTITUDES Operationalization Source Appendix 216 ECONOMIC FACTORS Operationalization Source Satisfaction with Financial Situation Question text:“How satisfied are you with the financial situation of your household? If '1' means you are completely dissatisfied on this scale, and '10' means you are completely satisfied, where would you put your satisfaction with your household's financial situation?” The item is scaled from 1 (“Dissatisfied”) to 10 (“Satisfied”). World Values Survey Justification of Bribery Question text:“Please tell me for each of the following statements whether you think it can always be justified, never be justified, or something in between, using this card. (Read out statements. Code one answer for each statement): Someone accepting a bribe in the course of their duties.” The item is scaled from 1 (“Never justifiable”) to 10 (“Always justifiable”). World Values Survey Appendix B: Independent Variables 217

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Abstract

International studies often point to Europe for low levels of corruption. However, recent scandals in nearly all European states illustrate that corruption continues to be on the rise. The author investigates the causes of corruption in Europe. The analysis indicates that a country’s contextual conditions such as the economic development, the degree and duration of democracy or historical factors like the post-communist past strongly influence Europe’s level of corruption. Furthermore, corruption is likely experienced differently depending on interpersonal trust and the justification of bribery. The findings reveal that a bundle of factors adding up to a specific “democratic culture” hinders the growth of corruption by generating strong democratic institutions and fostering citizen norms and values aimed at monitoring and sanctioning corrupt actors. As a result, democracy promotion is the best remedy against corruption spread in Europe.

Zusammenfassung

Auch wenn europäische Staaten vergleichsweise geringe Korruptionswerte aufzeigen, verdeutlichen Skandale immer wieder, dass Korruption ein großes Problem darstellt, mit dem auch Europa stark zu kämpfen hat. Die Autorin untersucht daher die Ursachen von Korruption auf dem europäischen Kontinent. Verschiedene Analysen zeigen, dass Kontextfaktoren eines Landes wie dessen ökonomischer Entwicklungsstand, der Demokratisierungsgrad und die jeweilige Dauer oder historische Faktoren wie die kommunistische Vergangenheit das Auftreten von Korruption stark beeinflussen.

Darüber hinaus spielen interpersonales Vertrauen und die Rechtfertigung von Bestechungszahlungen eine erhebliche Rolle in der Wahrnehmung von Korruption. Insgesamt zeigen die Befunde, dass letztendlich eine „demokratische Kultur“ der Schlüssel im Kampf gegen Korruption in Europa ist. Diese fördert demokratische Institutionen sowie Normen und Werte, die darauf abzielen, korrupte Akteure zu kontrollieren und sanktionieren.