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Ina Kubbe

Corruption in Europe, page 1 - 18

Is it all about Democracy?

1. Edition 2015, ISBN print: 978-3-8487-2347-8, ISBN online: 978-3-8452-6451-6, https://doi.org/10.5771/9783845264516-1

Series: Comparative Politics - Vergleichende Politikwissenschaft, vol. 6

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Nomos Corruption in Europe Ina Kubbe Comparative Politics – Vergleichende Politikwissenschaft | 6 Is it all about Democracy? Comparative Politics – Vergleichende Politikwissenschaft edited by Prof. Dr. Susanne Pickel, Universität Duisburg-Essen Prof. Dr. Christof Hartmann, Universität Duisburg-Essen Prof. Ingo Rohlfing, PhD, Universität Bremen Volume 6 Comparative Politics – Vergleichende Politikwissenschaft wird herausgegeben von Prof. Dr. Susanne Pickel, Universität Duisburg-Essen Prof. Dr. Christof Hartmann, Universität Duisburg-Essen Prof. Ingo Rohlfing, PhD, Universität Bremen Band 6 BUT_Kubbe_2347-8.indd 2 08.10.15 09:31 Is it all about Democracy? Corruption in Europe Nomos Ina Kubbe BUT_Kubbe_2347-8.indd 3 08.10.15 09:31 The Deutsche Nationalbibliothek lists this publication in the Deutsche Nationalbibliografie; detailed bibliographic data are available on the Internet at http://dnb.d-nb.de a.t.: Lüneburg, Univ., Diss., 2013 ISBN 978-3-8487-2347-8 (Print) 978-3-8452-6451-6 (ePDF) British Library Cataloguing-in-Publication Data A catalogue record for this book is available from the British Library. ISBN 978-3-8487-2347-8 (Print) 978-3-8452-6451-6 (ePDF) Library of Congress Cataloging-in-Publication Data Kubbe, Ina Corruption in Europe Is it all about Democracy? Ina Kubbe 220 p. Includes bibliographic references and index. ISBN 978-3-8487-2347-8 (Print) 978-3-8452-6451-6 (ePDF) 1. Edition 2015 © Nomos Verlagsgesellschaft, Baden-Baden, Germany 2015. Printed and bound in Germany. This work is subject to copyright. All rights reserved. No part of this publication may be reproduced or transmitted in any form or by any means, electronic or mechanical, including photocopying, recording, or any information storage or retrieval system, without prior permission in writing from the publishers. Under § 54 of the German Copyright Law where copies are made for other than private use a fee is payable to “Verwertungs gesellschaft Wort”, Munich. No responsibility for loss caused to any individual or organization acting on or refraining from action as a result of the material in this publication can be accepted by Nomos or the author. BUT_Kubbe_2347-8.indd 4 08.10.15 09:31 This book is dedicated to Kerstin, Fred and Eric Kubbe as well as Steffi Hinz who believe in me and support my work in academia with all their strength. Preface I would especially like to thank Ferdinand Müller-Rommel, my supervisor and mentor of the last years. He always gave me the support and space I needed. I wish to thank my lovely, profound and reliable colleagues and friends at the Center for the Study of Democracy, Leuphana University Lüneburg: Special thanks go to Esther Seha (“run, baby, run”), Kerstin Wiebke and her great sympathetic ear, Christian Welzel and his creative ideas and comments, Thomas Saretzki and his great wisdom, the very smart Vera van Hüllen and Dawid Friedrich who accompanied me along the way. I would also like to thank Basil Bornemann, Natalie Bowers, Marcel Lewandowsky, Toralf Stark and Resi, Dag Tanneberg (“I love STATA”), Florian Grotz, Susanne Pickel, Detlef Jahn, Isabell May, Katja Schmidt and, in particular, my “Greifswald and Berlin Crew“: Kristin Aßmus, Wiebke Berndt and Basti, Thomas Fiß, Mona Hafez, Conny Hänchen, Katharina Meibaum (“Meibi”), Sebastian von Podewils (“Pode”), Romy Schlabow, Viktoria Schreiber (“Vika”) und Stefan, Nils- Torge Telle, Helke Vangermain, Ines Weber, Caroline Zahn and Leo. I learnt especially two things: It is not all about work! And be patient with yourself! Thank you! 7 Table of Contents List of Figures 13 List of Tables 17 List of Abbreviations 19 Thinking about Corruption in Europe1 21 Relevance of the Study1.1 21 Definition and Characteristics of Corruption1.2 28 Definition of Corruption1.2.1 28 Characteristics of Corruption1.2.2 35 Theoretical Approaches on the Causes of Corruption1.3 38 Economic Perspectives: The Role of Rational Interests on Corruption 1.3.1 38 Sociological Perspectives: The Role of Culture on Corruption 1.3.2 42 Evaluation of Theoretical Corruption Research1.3.3 46 Empirical Studies of the Causes of Corruption1.4 47 Evaluation of Empirical Corruption Research1.4.1 49 Bathtub Model of Corruption2 53 Panel and Multilevel Analysis: A New Framework2.1 53 Corruption in European Countries2.2 58 Measuring Corruption: The Dependent Variable Reconsidered 2.3 61 The Aggregate Level: Macro Level Indices2.3.1 62 Critical Evaluation of Using Macro Corruption-Indices2.3.2 66 The Individual Level: Micro Level Indices2.3.3 69 Critical Evaluation of Using Micro Corruption-Indices2.3.4 72 9 Variables and Research Hypotheses: Aggregate and Individual Levels Combined 2.4 73 The Macro Level: Economic, Political, Socio-Cultural and Historical Factors 2.4.1 73 Economic Factors2.4.1.1 74 Political Factors2.4.1.2 77 Socio-Cultural Factors2.4.1.3 83 Historical Factors2.4.1.4 85 The Micro Level: Socio-demographic Characteristics, Values, Norms and Attitudes 2.4.2 89 Socio-Demographic Characteristics2.4.2.1 90 Values and Norms2.4.2.2 94 Attitudes2.4.2.3 95 Unpacking Corruption in Europe3 99 Explaining Corruption at the Macro Level3.1 100 Measuring Corruption at the Country Level3.1.1 102 Empirical Findings: The Impact of Country Characteristics on Corruption 3.1.2 113 Economic Factors3.1.2.1 113 Political Factors3.1.2.2 117 Socio-Cultural Factors3.1.2.3 123 Historical Factors3.1.2.4 132 The Impact of Country Characteristics on Corruption3.2 136 Explaining Corruption at the Micro Level3.3 141 Measuring Corruption at the Individual Level3.3.1 143 Empirical Findings: The Impact of Socio- Demographic Characteristics, Values, Norms, and Attitudes on Corruption 3.3.2 147 Socio-Demographic Characteristics3.3.2.1 148 Values and Norms3.3.2.2 151 Attitudes3.3.2.3 152 The Impact of Individual Characteristics on Corruption3.4 154 Table of Contents 10 The Bigger Picture of Corruption in Europe4 160 Macro Model of Corruption in Europe4.1 160 Micro Models of Corruption in Europe4.2 168 Europe’s Bathtub Model of Corruption4.3 172 Conclusion and Research Prospects4.4 176 References5 185 Appendix 207 Appendix A: Literature Overview 207 Appendix B: Independent Variables 215 219 Index 219 Table of Contents 11 List of Figures Figure 1: Dependent and Independent Variables 52 Figure 2: The Basic Model of Sociological Explanation 55 Figure 3: The Bathtub Model of Corruption 56 Figure 4: Corruption across Europe (Average Level: 1995-2013) 104 Figure 5: Extent of Corruption in Europe across Time 106 Figure 6: Extent of Corruption in European States across Time 109 Figure 7: Extent of Corruption and Economic Factors across Time 113 Figure 8: Correlation between Extent of Corruption and Economic Development (logarithmized) 114 Figure 9: Correlation between Extent of Corruption and Economic Development across European Countries (Average) 115 Figure 10: Boxplots of the Extent of Corruption and EU- Membership 116 Figure 11: Extent of Corruption and Political Factors across Time 117 Figure 12: Correlation between the Extent of Corruption and the Degree of Democracy 119 Figure 13: Correlation between the Extent of Corruption and the Degree of Democracy across European Countries (Average) 120 13 Figure 14: Correlation between the Extent of Corruption and Women in Parliaments 121 Figure 15: Correlation between the Extent of Corruption and Women in Parliaments across European Countries (Average) 122 Figure 16: Extent of Corruption and Socio-Cultural Factors across Time 123 Figure 17: Correlation between the Extent of Corruption and Percentage of Catholics 124 Figure 18: Correlation between the Extent of Corruption and Percentage of Catholics across European Countries (Average) 125 Figure 19: Correlation between the Extent of Corruption and Percentage of Orthodox 126 Figure 20: Correlation between the Extent of Corruption and Percentage of Orthodox across European Countries (Average) 127 Figure 21: Correlation between the Extent of Corruption and Percentage of Protestants 128 Figure 22: Correlation between the Extent of Corruption and Percentage of Protestants across European Countries (Average) 129 Figure 23: Correlation between the Extent of Corruption and Percentage of Muslims 130 Figure 24: Correlation between the Extent of Corruption and Percentage of Muslims across European Countries (Average) 131 List of Figures 14 Figure 25: Extent of Corruption and Historical Factors across Time 132 Figure 26: Correlation between the Extent of Corruption and Years of Democracy 133 Figure 27: Correlation between the Extent of Corruption and Years of Democracy across European Countries (Average) 134 Figure 28: Boxplots of the Extent of Corruption and Communist Past 135 Figure 29: Extent of perceived corruption in Europe 144 Figure 30: Extent of perceived corruption and an Individual’s Gender 148 Figure 31: Extent of perceived corruption and an Individual’s Age 149 Figure 32: Extent of perceived corruption and an Individual’s Employment Status 150 Figure 33: Extent of perceived corruption and an Individual’s Level of Interpersonal Trust 152 Figure 34: Extent of perceived corruption and an Individual’s Satisfaction with the Financial Situation 153 Figure 35: Extent of perceived Corruption and an Individual’s Justification of Bribery 154 Figure 36: The Bathtub Model of Corruption for European Countries 175 List of Figures 15 List of Tables Table 1: Correlation Matrix of certain Corruption Scores 65 Table 2: Corruption in Europe (Corruption Perceptions Index transformed) 104 Table 3: Development of Corruption (Corruption Perceptions Index transformed) 106 Table 4: Economic Factors (1995-2013) 117 Table 5: Political Factors (1995-2013) 122 Table 6: Socio-Cultural Factors (1995-2013) 131 Table 7: Historical Factors (1995-2013) 136 Table 8: Macro Model of Corruption 136 Table 9: Extent of perceived corruption in Europe 145 Table 10: Socio-Demographic Characteristics, Values, Norms, and Attitudes (1994-2009) 147 Table 11: Micro Model of Corruption 155 17

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Abstract

International studies often point to Europe for low levels of corruption. However, recent scandals in nearly all European states illustrate that corruption continues to be on the rise. The author investigates the causes of corruption in Europe. The analysis indicates that a country’s contextual conditions such as the economic development, the degree and duration of democracy or historical factors like the post-communist past strongly influence Europe’s level of corruption. Furthermore, corruption is likely experienced differently depending on interpersonal trust and the justification of bribery. The findings reveal that a bundle of factors adding up to a specific “democratic culture” hinders the growth of corruption by generating strong democratic institutions and fostering citizen norms and values aimed at monitoring and sanctioning corrupt actors. As a result, democracy promotion is the best remedy against corruption spread in Europe.

Zusammenfassung

Auch wenn europäische Staaten vergleichsweise geringe Korruptionswerte aufzeigen, verdeutlichen Skandale immer wieder, dass Korruption ein großes Problem darstellt, mit dem auch Europa stark zu kämpfen hat. Die Autorin untersucht daher die Ursachen von Korruption auf dem europäischen Kontinent. Verschiedene Analysen zeigen, dass Kontextfaktoren eines Landes wie dessen ökonomischer Entwicklungsstand, der Demokratisierungsgrad und die jeweilige Dauer oder historische Faktoren wie die kommunistische Vergangenheit das Auftreten von Korruption stark beeinflussen.

Darüber hinaus spielen interpersonales Vertrauen und die Rechtfertigung von Bestechungszahlungen eine erhebliche Rolle in der Wahrnehmung von Korruption. Insgesamt zeigen die Befunde, dass letztendlich eine „demokratische Kultur“ der Schlüssel im Kampf gegen Korruption in Europa ist. Diese fördert demokratische Institutionen sowie Normen und Werte, die darauf abzielen, korrupte Akteure zu kontrollieren und sanktionieren.