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Frank Seidel, How big is the active demand for orphanage volunteering? in:

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Voluntaris, Volume 8 (2020), Issue 2, ISSN: 2196-3886, ISSN online: 2196-3886, https://doi.org/10.5771/2196-3886-2020-2-384

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384 DOI: 10.5771/2196-3886-2020-2-384 How big is the active demand for orphanage volunteering? Using Google search volume data to evaluate interest in five countries of the Global North Frank Seidel Dipl.-Kommunikationswirt, Ingénieur-Maître en Communication | Gründer von wegweiserfreiwilligenarbeit.com | seidel@wegweiser-freiwilligenarbeit.com 1. Introduction Across the world, the popularity of volunteering programmes in orphanages is increasing (UNICEF n. d.). Each year, 25,000 volunteers from Germany alone travel the world. Working in orphanages is the most in demand (Amirov/Böff/Wiewe 2018). Experiences involving vulnerable children are among the most popular volunteer tourism practices (Guiney 2017). As these examples show, qualifying volunteering in orphanages as one of the most popular or even the most popular form of international volunteering is a common entry statement of blog posts, media coverage on orphanage tourism, and even scientific research. Yet, there is very little data to provide proof for these statements. Some research exists on the offer side of orphanage volunteering, exploring how many volunteering organisations offer placements in orphanages or in which countries the most orphanage placements exist. Amongst volunteering practitioners, it is also undisputed that volunteering with children (without consideration if they are orphans or not) is indeed one of the most popular forms of volunteering. But we do not know to what extent volunteers pro-actively demand to be placed in orphanages. It seems equally plausible that people engage in orphanage volunteering because volunteer organisations or orphanages that these people encounter by accident convince them that this kind of volunteering is beneficial to orphaned children. Initial research indicated that significant discrepancies might exist from one country to another in terms of pro-active demand for orphanage volunteering. In today’s information society, Internet search engines play a central role in discovering, comparing and choosing products and services. An American study found that 71 percent of consumers use Internet searches via search engines to discover new services, and even 74 percent used search engines for consideration or purchase (Forester Research 2016). 385 Seidel, How big is the active demand for orphanage volunteering? This research therefore gathers data on the volume of search queries that indicate an intention to do orphanage volunteering in a foreign country in order to gauge the pro-active demand for this type of volunteering in five different countries: • Australia • France • Germany • United Kingdom • United States of America The data will also provide a benchmark for future research that can compare the evolution of this demand over time. 2. Methodology To establish the absolute and relative demand for orphanage volunteering, this research will compare • the number of active Internet users in each country with • the search volume on Google of search queries that express a search intent1 of volunteering in an orphanage in a foreign country. 2.1 Data on Internet users According to “Our World in Data” (Ritchie 2019), who combine data of the World Bank and the UN, the number of Internet users in 2017 (most recent available data, 2016 for the UK and USA) was between 80 and 95 percent. Table 1: Number of Internet users country Internet users % of the population Australia 21.160.670 86,54 France 52.308.536 80,50 Germany 69.300.711 84,40 United Kingdom 62.351.648 94,62 United States of America 245.425.910 87,27 Source: Ritchie 2019 1 “Search intent is the why behind a search query. In other words, why did the person make this search? Do they want to learn something? Are they looking to make a purchase? Or, are they looking for a particular website?” (Hardwick 2019). 386 Voluntaris, Jg. 8, 2/2020, Dokumentationen One can assume that not all Internet users are equally likely to research international volunteering opportunities online. Most volunteer organisations target young people from 16 to 25 or 30. The proportion of Internet users is significantly higher in this age segment and can reach almost 100 percent in some countries. (ICT 2017: 1 f.) At the same time, there is a lot of evidence that other age groups also engage in international volunteering. It would be very difficult to develop a model that takes into account the likelihood of each age group to volunteer abroad. This research therefore sticked to the number of all Internet users, regardless of age or other socio-demographic factors. 2.2 Data on Search Volume The research relies exclusively on data available in the Google Search Console (GSC) of relevant websites. Google has a quasi-monopoly in all considered countries with a search market share of between 92 percent and 95 percent. The only exception are the US with a market share of “only” 88 percent. (Statcounter n. d.) One can therefore consider that the search volume on Google is close to the total search volume. “Google Search Console (GSC) is a free service offered by Google that helps [website owners] monitor […] [their] site’s presence in Google Search results” (Google n. d. a). Amongst other data, GSC allows for viewing “Google Search traffic data for your site: how often your site appears in Google Search, which search queries show your site” (Google n. d. a). Although there is debate on the reliability of search volume data in GSC, it is the only tool that provides measured, not estimated data on • what exact search queries have triggered the appearance of a website in Google’s search engine result pages (including spelling variations) • how many times these queries have been searched by real users. In GSC the search volume is expressed as the number of “impressions”. A link URL records an impression when it appears in a search result for a user. Whether or not the link must actually be scrolled into view or otherwise visible depends on the type of search element that contains the link […]. For example, here is a very basic search result that includes only one link: the title “The Compleat Guide to Daffodils – Example.com” 387 Seidel, How big is the active demand for orphanage volunteering?Voluntaris, Jg. 8, 2/2020, Dokumentationen The URL pointed to by this link records an impression when the user opens the page containing this result (even if the result is not scrolled into view). (Google n. d. b). If a website is present on the first search results page (which in most cases includes 10 organic search results) (Wikipedia n. d.), the number of impressions in GSC is close to identical to the number of times the search has been performed. If a website appears on the second search results page or even further in the search results, it will record an impression only if the user clicks through to these second, third, etc search results pages. For this study, the author considered the search volume between January 1st and April 30th 2019 as the best compromise to • work with recent data and • take into account seasonal fluctuations in the search volume. For example, in many countries the number of volunteering related search queries increases in January. Some practitioners refer to this as the “new year’s resolution spike”. 2.2.1 Adjustment of search volume if the Average Position didn’t indicate a position on the first search results page GSC data is not publicly available and only accessible to the website’s owner. The author therefore needed to find websites that consistently appear on the first search results page for relevant search queries and were willing to provide their private data (more on the collaborating websites below). A single website cannot appear on the first search results page for all relevant search queries and the author didn’t have the resources to collaborate with many websites. The author therefore was obliged to also work with Impressions data for Average positions that indicated a position on the second search result page (Average position between 11 and 20) or even further in the search results. There is a saying amongst search engine marketing professionals that “The best place to hide a dead body is page 2 of Google search results”, but there is very few data on the percentage of users who reach this second page. Most research focuses on what percentage of users clicks on a search result in a specific position (a percentage known as click-through-rate), but frequently it is considered that on average only five percent of users go to the second search result page. Once a user reaches the second page, the drop-off to advance further to page 3 or 4 is much less significant (Dean 2019; Digital Synopsis n. d.). At the same time, the user behaviour can be very different from one search query/search result to another. Fortunately, this research includes date of two websites for the UK and therefore had the opportunity to compare the Impressions data of two websites. The author was able to compare the Impressions data for 15 search queries for which 388 Voluntaris, Jg. 8, 2/2020, Dokumentationen one website had an Average position on the first search results page and the other website an Average position on the second or further search results pages. These 15 search queries indicate an average click-through-rate from the first to the second or further search results pages of about 25 percent. This is much higher than the usually reported five percent. The author thinks this is because the first search results page might frequently not satisfy the user’s search intent. If the user is looking for volunteering abroad, they will find many search results that condemn orphanage volunteering. If the user is looking for opportunities at home, they will find that orphanages do not exist anymore. In both cases, the resulting frustration might lead to a higher than average motivation to go to the second search results page. Subsequently, the author multiplied Impressions data for search queries with Average positions on the second or further pages by four in order to establish the search volume for these queries. 2.2.2 Adjustment of search volume for search queries with ambiguous search intent During the research, the author found that there is a very significant search volume for search queries that reveal the intention to volunteer in the user’s home country (in all countries except Germany). Such search queries include • orphanage volunteer programs near me • volunteer orphanage uk • volunteer orphanage melbourne • orphanages in nyc volunteer • travailler dans un orphelinat en france • bénévolat orphelinat paris This led to the insight that search queries missing a clear indication where a user wants to volunteer (such as “orphanage volunteer”, “can i volunteer at an orphanage”, “working in an orphanage”) cannot automatically be considered as queries with the search intent to volunteer abroad. Using data from the UK where the research had two participating websites, and applying the aforementioned adjustment for search volume if the Average Position didn’t indicate a position on the first search results page, the author established the following search volumes: 389 Seidel, How big is the active demand for orphanage volunteering?Voluntaris, Jg. 8, 2/2020, Dokumentationen Table search intent search volume % of total search volume with defined search intent clearly abroad 837 61 clearly UK 540 39 total 1,377 100 Source: own data Subsequently, the author considered only 61 percent of the measured search volume for these search queries as search volume for volunteering abroad. 2.3 Websites that provided data GSC data is not publicly available and only accessible to a website’s owner. The research therefore needed to find websites that consistently appear on the first page of search engine results for relevant search queries. To identify websites that consistently appear in Google’s search results for relevant search queries and are therefore capable of providing relevant data, the author used the terms • orphanage volunteer • orphanage volunteering abroad • volunteer orphanage africa • orphanage volunteer trips • help orphans in Africa The following websites • appeared for all or many of the search terms (or their translation in French and German) with an average position of 10 or better in the search results and • agreed to provide relevant data from their GSC properties. All website owners are members of the ReThink Orphanages2 coalition. 2 ReThink Orphanages is a global, cross-sector coalition working to prevent family separation and unnecessary child institutionalization by shifting the way countries in the global north engage with overseas aid and development. More information see: www.rethinkorphanages.org. 390 Voluntaris, Jg. 8, 2/2020, Dokumentationen Table: Websites that provided data country website Australia projects-abroad.com.au France guidisto-volontariat.fr Germany wegweiser-freiwilligenarbeit.com United Kingdom projects-abroad.co.uk savethechildren.org.uk United States of America projects-abroad.org The author would like to explicitly thank the website owners for their kind collaboration. This research wouldn’t have been possible without their contributions. 2.4 Relevant search queries The participating websites were asked to provide impressions data for all search queries that included • for the English-speaking countries Australia, UK, USA: “orphan”, which picked up all search queries including the word “orphan”, but also “orphans” or “orphanage”, • for France: “orphelin”, which picked up all search queries including the word “orphelin” (orphan), but also “orphelins” (plural of orphelin) and “orphelinat” (orphanage), • for Germany: “waise”, which picked up all search queries including the word “waise” (orphan), but also “waisen” (plural of waise) and “waisenhaus” (orphanage). The author considered only data for which GSC’s country information matched one of our target countries. In GSC’s Performance report “Country” is being defined as “The country where the search came from” (Google n. d. c). In other words, Google assumes that the user who has performed the search was located in the respective country. The author was aware that especially on the offer side of orphanage volunteering other terms are used to promote placements in orphanages, sometimes even deliberately to hide the fact that a host project is an orphanage and thereby to avoid criticism. Such terms include “children’s home”, “boarding school” or “children’s shelter”. The author decided not to include search queries including these terms, as in his opinion they do not express the search intent to work in an orphanage. It seems very unlikely that a user intends to volunteer in an orphanage, but searches for something not directly related such as “volunteer abroad children’s home” because she thinks “volunteer organisations are avoiding the term, but I want to volunteer in an orphanage, so I rather search for something they might use instead”. 391 Seidel, How big is the active demand for orphanage volunteering?Voluntaris, Jg. 8, 2/2020, Dokumentationen 2.4.1 Included search queries Determining the user’s search intent is not always easy or unambiguous. The easiest call was for search queries that clearly express the intention to volunteer in an orphanage in a foreign country such as • volunteer in africa orphanage • volunteer orphanage abroad • volunteering in romanian orphanages • mission trips to africa orphanages Additionally, the author considered that the following search queries express the desired search intent. Table: Included search queries type of search query examples of search queries “project” part of the search query “project” is frequently used as synonym for “offer” or “placement” by volunteer sending organisations and therefore has a clear international connotation. • orphanage project • orphanage helping project reference to work or job, not to volunteering. “work” of “job” can be interpreted as paid work or as voluntary work. The author assumes that most users are looking for unpaid work when the “employer” is an orphanage. • work in orphanage abroad • working in an orphanage • orphanage jobs abroad The author discovered during the research that there is a significant pro-active demand to volunteer in orphanages at home. Subsequently, the author decided that it is not appropriate to conclude from the absence of a geographical indication that the user’s search intent is to volunteer in a foreign country. Search queries lacking a geographical indication will therefore only be considered for 61 percent (see chapter 2.2.2 for details) as expressing the intent to volunteer abroad. These queries include: Table: Search query lacking a geographical indication type of search query examples of search queries clear reference to volunteering, work or job, but lack of geographical indication • orphanage volunteer • can i volunteer at an orphanage • working in an orphanage • orphanage worker jobs 392 Voluntaris, Jg. 8, 2/2020, Dokumentationen Theoretically, a search like “orphanage volunteering abroad” could also indicate the search intent of finding more information on this topic, or even to find information on why orphanage volunteering abroad is a bad idea. But as the participating websites did not record significant search volume for search queries with a clear search intent of this kind (such as “problem with orphanage volunteering”), the author believes that such an interpretation would be inaccurate. 2.4.2 Excluded search queries From the raw data provided by the participating websites, the author excluded the search queries that contain “orphan” (or its translation) but in his opinion do not express the search intent of volunteering in an orphanage abroad. Table: Excluded search queries reason not to include the search query examples of search queries intended location to volunteer is not in a country abroad reminder: Google located the user in Australia, France, Germany, UK, USA, and not in a volunteering destination. • orphanage volunteer programs near me • orphanages near me to volunteer • volunteer orphanage uk • volunteer orphanage melbourne • orphanages in nyc volunteer • travailler dans un orphelinat en france • bénévolat orphelinat paris search query does not include a clear reference to volunteering The search intent might be • informational (Example of possible intents for “african orphanages”: What does an African orphanage look like? How many African orphanages exist?) or • aimed at supporting orphans in another way than volunteering (money or in-kind donations, adoptions, etc.). • african orphanages • orphanage • kids in orphanages • orphanage needs list • african orphanage charity • orphanages in africa that need help • helping african orphans search query refers to animal shelters • sri lanka elephant orphanage • volunteer at elephant orphanage • panda orphanage china • waisenhaus der wilden tiere search query refers to paid work • paid orphanage jobs 2.4.3 Missed search queries and search volume Google uses hundreds of ranking factors to determine its search results (Fiorelli 2014) and no single website can appear on the first search results page for all relevant search queries. As the research has worked with only one or two websites per country, one needs to consider the established search volume as a good 393 Seidel, How big is the active demand for orphanage volunteering?Voluntaris, Jg. 8, 2/2020, Dokumentationen approximation and not the total search volume in a country. The homogenous way to obtain the raw data ensures nonetheless a satisfying comparability. 3. Findings 3.1 Pro-active demand for orphanage volunteering is very different from country to country Figure 1: Monthly searches per million Internet users Source: own data The pro-active demand for volunteering in orphanages abroad is very different from country to country. There is a significant gap between Australia and France, the two countries with the highest demand, and the UK and the USA. The demand in France is almost three times the demand in the US. The demand in Germany seems almost insignificant. The author did several searches with plausible search queries that didn’t appear in the data to verify if maybe the participating website was not ranking high enough and therefore wasn’t able to provide enough data. Each time, the author found the website on the first page. He concludes that the demand in Germany is really this low. The author is showing here the TOP 10 search queries by Impressions/Search Volume per country in absolute numbers. The German website recorded search volume for six searches only. 394 Voluntaris, Jg. 8, 2/2020, Dokumentationen Table: TOP 10 search queries in Australia TOP 10 Search queries Australia search volume volunteering in africa orphanages 45 volunteer africa orphanage 40 volunteer orphanage africa 40 volunteer orphanage abroad 37 volunteer orphanage 34 orphanage volunteer 32 volunteer in orphanages abroad 28 orphanage volunteer work 27 volunteer at orphanage 26 volunteer cambodia orphanage 24 Source: own data Table: TOP 10 search queries France TOP 10 Search queries France search volume travailler dans un orphelinat 462 mission humanitaire orphelinat 356 bénévolat orphelinat 190 mission humanitaire orphelinat gratuit 125 travailler en orphelinat 73 bénévolat orphelinat madagascar 92 voyage humanitaire orphelinat 91 humanitaire orphelinat 90 mission humanitaire orphelinat europe 74 bénévolat orphelinat espagne 73 Source: own data 395 Seidel, How big is the active demand for orphanage volunteering?Voluntaris, Jg. 8, 2/2020, Dokumentationen Table: TOP 10 search queries Germany all search queries Germany search volume waisenhaus afrika freiwilligendienst 47 im waisenhaus arbeiten 39 arbeiten im waisenhaus 16 arbeit unter waisenkindern in rumaenien 4 freiwilligenarbeit im waisenhaus 3 waisenhaus arbeiten 2 Source: own data Table: TOP 10 search queries UK TOP 10 search queries UK search volume volunteer in africa orphanage 155 orphanage volunteer 87 volunteer orphanage 82 volunteering in orphanages 56 volunteer in orphanage 45 volunteer at orphanage 44 orphanage volunteering 39 volunteer orphanage abroad 57 can i volunteer at an orphanage 32 orphanage volunteer programs 29 Source: own data Table: TOP 10 search queries USA TOP 10 search queries USA search volume orphanage volunteer 194 orphanage volunteering 163 volunteer in china orphanage 132 volunteer in africa orphanage 127 volunteer in costa rica orphanage 116 volunteer china orphanage 108 volunteer in mexico in orphanages 100 volunteer in orphanages abroad 96 orphanage volunteer abroad 89 volunteer orphanage abroad 76 Source: own data 396 Voluntaris, Jg. 8, 2/2020, Dokumentationen 3.2 Demand is on a low level, even in countries with relatively high demand Even in the countries with the highest demand for orphanage volunteering abroad, this demand is quite modest. The author wants to emphasize that figure 1 above refers to searches per million (!) Internet users. Let’s take a look at the absolute numbers: The search volume is much lower than expected. Figure 2: Search volume per month Source: own data In order to put these numbers in perspective, the research compared the search “volunteer orphanage abroad” (and its translations into French and German) with some other searches, based this time on estimated monthly search volume3 by Google Ads and the third party tool SEMrush.4 Table: Estimated monthly search volume Australia, UK, USA search query Australia United Kingdom USA Google Ads SEMrush Google Ads SEMrush Google Ads SEMrush volunteer orphanage abroad 20 30 90 30 110 110 volunteer abroad 880 880 9.900 9.900 4.400 5.400 animal volunteering abroad 30 90 880 880 210 210 Volunteer with children abroad 90 90 10 –4 90 30 Source: own data 3 Data retrieved on 30 September 2019. 4 Not enough data. 397 Seidel, How big is the active demand for orphanage volunteering?Voluntaris, Jg. 8, 2/2020, Dokumentationen Table: Estimated monthly search volume France search query Google Ads SEMrush mission humanitaire orphelinat 70 10 mission humanitaire 6.600 6.600 mission humanitaire animaux 480 390 mission humanitaire enfants 30 10 Source: own data Table: Estimated monthly search volume Germany search query Google Ads SEMrush freiwilligenarbeit im waisenhaus 10 10 freiwilligenarbeit ausland 1.300 1.000 freiwilligenarbeit ausland tiere 70 70 Freiwilligenarbeit ausland mit kindern – 10 Source: own data The estimated data confirms that orphanage volunteering abroad is not a form of volunteering that is frequently searched for compared with other types of volunteering. 3.3 Only very few searches for mission trips and school / student trips 3.3.1 Mission trips The participating websites recorded only a handful of searches for the search intent to participate in a missionary volunteering project of a faith motivated organisation, frequently called “mission trips”. The search queries were as shown in the following table. Table: Included search queries “mission trips” search query search volume Australia search volume United Kingdom search volume USA mission trips to africa orphanages – 2 67 mission trips to mexico orphanages – – 63 mission trips to help orphans – – 20 family mission trips to orphanages – – 16 mission trip to vietnam orphanage – – 13 Source: own data No mission trip related searches were recorded in Australia, France, and Germany. None of the participating websites has pages that are specifically designed to satisfy the search intent for search queries in the context of “mission trips”. Again, the author complemented the measured data with estimated search volumes. 398 Voluntaris, Jg. 8, 2/2020, Dokumentationen Table: Estimated monthly search volume “mission trips” search query Australia United Kingdom USA Google Ads SEMrush Google Ads SEMrush Google Ads SEMrush mission trips 260 210 170 170 12.100 12.100 orphanage mission trips 10 10 10 10 110 140 short term mission trips 30 70 50 70 590 70 Source: own data The data shows that mission trips to orphanages are largely a phenomenon limited to the USA. Some search volume exists but only on a very small scale compared to more general searches for mission trips. In France and Germany, the author didn’t find relevant search queries for which Google Ads or SEMrush had enough data to estimate a search volume. 3.3.2 School / student trips None of the participating websites recorded an impression/search volume for search queries that indicate the search intent to send a school or university group to an orphanage abroad. As at the same time none of the websites featured a page specifically designed to satisfy this search intent, the author tried to find estimated search volume data. Despite our efforts using the keyword suggestion tools of Google Ads and SEMrush, the author did not find any search query matching this intent and a search volume of at least ten/month, with ten being the lowest possible number. 3.4 Demand for orphanage volunteering at home While cleansing the data provided by the participating websites, the author quickly discovered the high number of search queries (and the corresponding search volume) with the clear search intent to volunteer at an orphanage in the user’s home country. This was the case in Australia, France, the UK, and the US, but not in Germany. 399 Seidel, How big is the active demand for orphanage volunteering?Voluntaris, Jg. 8, 2/2020, Dokumentationen Table: TOP 5 search queries local intent Australia TOP 5 Search queries Australia Search volume volunteer orphanage melbourne 60 volunteer orphanage australia 44 volunteer orphanage sydney 36 orphanage melbourne volunteer 32 volunteer at orphanage near me 12 Source: own data Table: TOP 5 search queries local intent France TOP 5 Search queries France Search volume bénévolat orphelinat lille 76 travailler dans un orphelinat en france 71 bénévolat orphelinat france 16 bénévolat orphelinat paris 16 bénévolat orphelinat grenoble 12 Source: own data Table: TOP 5 search queries local intent UK TOP 5 Search queries UK Search volume volunteer orphanage london 231 orphanage volunteer london 84 orphanage volunteer programs near me 76 orphanage volunteer near me 36 orphanages near me to volunteer 24 Source: own data Table: TOP 5 search queries local intent USA TOP 5 Search queries USA Search volume orphanages near me to volunteer 28 volunteering at orphanages near me 20 el paso orphanage volunteer 12 orphanage volunteer programs near me 8 orphanage volunteering near me 8 Source: own data 400 Voluntaris, Jg. 8, 2/2020, Dokumentationen This was even more surprising as none of the participating websites had pages that are specifically designed to satisfy the search intent to do such local volunteering. The Average position was frequently not on the first search results page and even on pages beyond page 2. One can also assume that Google interprets such search queries as searches with local intent5 and therefore changes the search results depending on the user’s location. A user searching for “volunteer orphanage near me” in London will receive different search results than a user searching in Manchester. One of the factors for the search results ranking with supposed local intent is the location of the business/ organisation as perceived by Google, in many cases the business address used on the contact page of a website. For example, the participating websites in the UK have business addresses in Brighton (projects-abroad.co.uk) and London (savethechildren.org.uk). This will favour their chances to be shown for searches performed in these areas, but this boost is lost for searches performed in other locations. The research can only have a partial view of the search volume as it worked only with one or two websites per country and the overall search volume is probably even higher than what the research was able to observe. 4. Conclusions 4.1 Orphanage volunteering is driven by the volunteering offer Both measured and estimated search volume data shows that there is only little pro-active demand for orphanage volunteering abroad in Australia, France, the UK, and the USA. In Germany, there is almost no demand. The author has no knowledge of research providing data on the number of volunteers in orphanages in the Global South, but there is enough anecdotical evidence to assume that a significant number of volunteers from these countries do volunteer in orphanages abroad, including volunteers from Germany. The author concludes that orphanage volunteering is primarily driven by the offer of placements in orphanages. Volunteers rarely seem to have in the beginning the clear intention to do voluntary work in an orphanage. The author believes that it is the availability of orphanage projects and the encouraging arguments developed by orphanages and volunteer organisations that make volunteers choose this path. A typical itinerary could be: 1. The prospective volunteer starts the search for a project without the intention to volunteer in an orphanage using quite broad web searches such as “volunteer abroad”. 5 “Local results appear for people who search for businesses and places near their location” (Google n. d. d). 401 Seidel, How big is the active demand for orphanage volunteering?Voluntaris, Jg. 8, 2/2020, Dokumentationen 2. While discovering different volunteering opportunities, the person comes across an orphanage placement. 3. The arguments developed by the volunteer organisation or the orphanage itself (if it recruits volunteers without intermediaries) convince the prospective volunteer that it is a good idea to help orphans as a volunteer. 4. The person signs up to do voluntary work in an orphanage without having intended do so in the beginning. Convincing volunteer organisations to divest from orphanage volunteering therefore seems to be even more important than educating the public on the negative impact of orphanage volunteering. If there was no offer, very few volunteers would spontaneously develop the idea to volunteer in an orphanage. 4.2 Orphanage volunteering is favoured by the general presence of orphanages in the collective mind It has been a surprise that a higher demand for orphanage volunteering abroad seems to correlate with an equally high demand for orphanage volunteering at home. This research was not designed to investigate this phenomenon in detail, so further research is necessary to confirm it. But the author supposes that the openness to volunteer in an orphanage is positively influenced if orphanages in general are perceived as • an existing thing in the home country and as • something positive. There seems to be a significant percentage of the population in the Global North that thinks that local orphanages are still a thing in their home country. In our data, search queries such as “are there still orphanages in the uk” or “are there orphanages in america” appeared, but only with a much smaller search volume as queries indicating a search for local orphanages. Educating the public on the absence of orphanages at home and the reasons for this absence appears to be an important aspect of making orphanage volunteering less desirable. If the movement against orphanage volunteering frequently uses the argument that “there are good reasons why orphanages do not exist any longer in the Global North”, it seems necessary not to consider this absence as self-evident and to provide further proof for the absence of orphanages in Australia, France, Germany, the UK and the US. 402 Voluntaris, Jg. 8, 2/2020, Dokumentationen Bibliography Amirov, Ruslan, Melanie Böff und Kathrin Wiewe (2018): Wenn Freiwilligenarbeit in Nepal es gut meint aber alles noch schlimmer macht, Bayerischer Rundfunk, www.br.de/ nachricht/wenn-freiwilligenarbeit-in-nepal-es-gut-meint-aber-alles-noch-schlimmermacht-100.html (02.10.2019). Dean, Brian (2019): We analyzed 5 million Google Search Results – Here’s What We Learned About Organic Click Through Rate, https://backlinko.com/google-ctr-stats (27.09.2019). 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References
Amirov, Ruslan, Melanie Böff und Kathrin Wiewe (2018): Wenn Freiwilligenarbeit in Nepal es gut meint aber alles noch schlimmer macht, Bayerischer Rundfunk, www.br.de/ nachricht/wenn-freiwilligenarbeit-in-nepal-es-gut-meint-aber-alles-noch-schlimmer-macht-100.html (02.10.2019).
Dean, Brian (2019): We analyzed 5 million Google Search Results – Here’s What We Learned About Organic Click Through Rate, https://backlinko.com/google-ctr-stats (27.09.2019).
Digital Synopsis (n. d.): Why Page 2 Of Google Search Results Is The Best Place To Hide A Dead Body, https://digitalsynopsis.com/tools/google-serp-design/ (27.09.2019).
Fiorelli, Gianluca (2014) : The Myth of Google’s 200 Ranking Factors, https://moz.com/blog/ the-myth-of-googles-200-ranking-factors (30.09.2019).
Forester Research (2016): Why Search + Social = Success For Brands. The Role Of Search And Social In The Customer Life Cycle, www.catalystdigital.com/wp-content/uploads/Why-SearchPlusSocialEqualsSuccess-Catalyst.pdf (02.10.2019).
Google (n. d. a): About Search Console, https://support.google.com/webmasters/ answer/9128668?hl=en (18.09.2019).
Google (n. d. b): What are impressions, position, and clicks?, https://support.google.com/ webmasters/answer/7042828?hl=en (18.09.2019).
Google (n. d.c): Performance Report, https://support.google.com/webmasters/ answer/7576553?hl=en > Dimension and filters > Countries (18.09.2019).
Google (n. d. d): Improve your local ranking on Google, https://support.google.com/business/answer/7091?hl=en (01.10.2019).
Guiney, Tess (2017): “Hug-an-orphan vacations”: “love” and emotion in orphanage tourism, in: The Geographical Journal, vol. 184, no. 2, www.researchgate.net/ publication/318177538_’Hug-an-orphan_vacations’_’love’_and_emotion_in_orphanage_ tourism (02.10.2019).
Hardwick, Joshua (2019): Searcher Intent: The Overlooked “Ranking Factor” You Should Be Optimizing For, https://ahrefs.com/blog/search-intent/ (18.09.2019).
ITU – International Telecommunications Union (2017): ICT Fact and figures 2017, www.itu. int/en/ITU-D/Statistics/Documents/facts/ICTFactsFigures2017.pdf (18.09.2019).
Ritchie, Hannah (2019): How many internet users does each country have?, https://ourworldindata.org/how-many-internet-users-does-each-country-have (18.09.2019).
Statcounter (n. d.): Search Engine Market Share Worldwide, https://gs.statcounter.com/ search-engine-market-share/ (18.09.2019).
UNICEF (n. d.): Volunteering in orphanages, www.unicef.org/rosa/what-we-do/child-protection/volunteering-orphanages (02.10.2019).
Wikipedia (n. d.): Organic Search, https://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Organic_search (18.09.2019).

Zusammenfassung

Voluntaris – Zeitschrift für Freiwilligendienste ist eine wissenschaftlich orientierte Informations-, Diskussions- und Dokumentationsschrift für den Bereich Freiwilligendienste. Sie richtet sich an Akteure aus Wissenschaft und Praxis und fördert damit den Austausch zwischen akademischen und anwendungsbezogenen Perspektiven auf Freiwilligendienste. Sie wendet sich an folgende Leser- und Autorenschaft:

  • Forscher/innen, Lehrpersonal und Studierende an Hochschulen und wissenschaftlichen Einrichtungen, die sich mit Themen und Fragestellungen rund um Freiwilligendienste beschäftigen

  • Verantwortliche Mitarbeiter/innen und Engagierte in Träger- und Partnerorganisationen, Einsatzstellen, Verbänden, Ministerien, Parteien, Kirchen, Stiftungen und Freiwilligenvereinigungen in Deutschland und den Partnerländern

  • Pädagogische Fachkräfte und Trainer/innen, die Freiwillige auf ihren Dienst vorbereiten, begleiten oder in ihrem Engagement nach dem Dienst unterstützen

  • Weitere gesellschafts-, jugend-, sozial- und entwicklungspolitische Organisationen, die im Kontext von Freiwilligendiensten tätig sind

  • Ehemalige, aktuelle und zukünftige Freiwillige, die sich tiefergehend für die Thematik interessieren.