Jeffrey Paul Wehrung, Displaying Narcissism in a Virtual Team in:

mrev management revue, page 441 - 460

mrev, Volume 28 (2017), Issue 4, ISSN: 0935-9915, ISSN online: 0935-9915, https://doi.org/10.5771/0935-9915-2017-4-441

Browse Volumes and Issues: mrev management revue

Bibliographic information
PDF download Citation download Share
Jeffrey Paul Wehrung* Displaying Narcissism in a Virtual Team** The digital working life affects not only the way employees work, but also the way employees interact within a team. Virtual teamwork is becoming increasingly common, with coworkers often building their initial relationships through online interactions such as social media. This paper examines how disclosure of narcissistic tendencies, such as an inflated self-view and/or sense of entitlement, differentially affect coworker’s initial perceptions of an employee’s warmth and competence as well as influencing coworker behaviours toward the employee. Although being authentic is generally regarded as a positive trait, this research suggests that narcissistic employees should be judicious in what information they disclose when joining a virtual team. While sharing information that suggests inflated self-views may help in establishing the relationship, disclosure of entitlement may have detrimental effects. Keywords: narcissism, entitlement, inflated self-views, virtual teams (JEL-Codes: C90, C91, C99, D91) Introduction Virtual teams, teams working interdependently from dispersed geographic locations, have become increasingly common over the past two decades, leading to greater research on virtual team process and team development (Gilson, Maynard, Young, Vartiainen, & Hakonen, 2015). Existing research has specifically focused on difficulties that organisations may encounter in establishing, maintaining, and supporting virtual teams, e. g. building trust, cohesion, and team identity, and overcoming isolation among virtual team members (Kirkman, Rosen, Gibson, Tesluk, & McPherson, 2002). Particular emphasis has been placed on relationship development, which may be even more critical in distributed teams where team members do not have the opportunity to build relationships face-to-face (Al-Ani, Horspool, & Bligh, 2011). The Oxford Dictionary unanimously named “Selfie” the 2013 Word of the Year, highlighting a trend in which people, particularly young people, share all aspects of their life through online social media. These social interactions are important as virtual team members may utilise information provided in social networks to determine their initial perceptions and intention to work with an individual (Templeton, * Jeffrey P. Wehrung Sr., Ph.D., Black Hills State University School of Business, Center for Business, Entrepreneurship, & Tourism, Spearfish, South Dakota, USA. Email: Jeffrey.Wehrung@bhsu.edu. ** Article received: September 30, 2016. Article accepted: September 27, 2017. Displaying Narcissism in a Virtual Team 441 mrev, 28 (4) 2017, 441 – 460 DOI: 10.5771/0935-9915-2017-4-441 Luo, Giberson, & Campbell, 2012). New organisational structures, such as online communities, also create an environment where online disclosures take a new purpose and form (Posey, Lowry, Robers, & Ellis, 2010). Prior research shows that individuals feel free to be more authentic in online self-disclosures, allowing them to present their “true self ” (McKenna, Green, & Gleason, 2002). These disclosures help in the creation of empathetic bonds necessary for building close relationships (Bargh, McKenna, & Fitzsimons, 2002) with importance placed on quickly identifying whether a potential virtual team member is both trustworthy and competent (Breuer, Huffmeier, & Hertel, 2016; Robert, Dennis, & Hung, 2009; Rodrigues, Oliveira, & de Souza, 2006). Along with changes to the way teams form and communicate, organisations are faced with a new type of worker exhibiting greater levels of narcissism (Twenge & Campbell, 2009). Yet previous research has not fully considered whether expressing such narcissistic tendencies to members of a virtual team is beneficial. The issue of whether online self-disclosure fosters or hinders collaboration is increasingly important as global organisations become more reliant on virtual relationships (Holton, 2001). Despite evidence suggesting that online self-disclosure is socially beneficial, it is possible that disclosing certain things may be detrimental to social perceptions. Recent research has linked virtual self-disclosure to generally positive behaviours such as empathetic concern and perspective taking (Alloway, Runac, Qureshi, & Kemp, 2014). Unfortunately, certain individuals choose to disclose information that presents themselves in an authentic but socially unflattering way. For example, individual’s with low self-esteem often post highly negative disclosures, which elicit undesirable responses from others (Forest & Wood, 2012). Narcissistic individuals may similarly present different content when compared with the general public, often including a greater amount of self-promotion (Mehdizadeh, 2010) and possibly the belief that they are entitled to greater outcomes than others (Alloway et al., 2014). The presentation of narcissistic tendencies may affect both coworker perceptions of and behaviours toward an employee. Even if we know that self-disclosure within the virtual setting may lead others to perceive an employee as narcissistic (Buffardi & Campbell, 2008), it is difficult to predict how others will behave toward the employee. Many of the outcomes previously ascribed to narcissism are really the result of two separate factors; “Grandiosity” and “Entitlement” (Brown, Budzek, & Tamborski, 2009). Grandiosity refers specifically to the inflation in the individual’s self-view, which may be exhibited in feelings of superiority, self-admiration, self-sufficiency, vanity, and authority (Corry, Merritt, Mrug, & Pamp, 2008; Raskin & Terry, 1988). Entitlement, on the other hand, is defined as an individual’s belief that he or she deserves preferential rewards and treatment relative to others, often without consideration of abilities or performance levels (Harvey & Martinko, 2009). Entitlement captures aspects of narcis- 442 Jeffrey Paul Wehrung sism related to interpersonal deservedness and the objectification of others (Campbell, Bonacci, Shelton, Exline, & Bushman, 2004). It is the simultaneous presence and presentation of an individual’s internally focused self-views and their externally focused entitlement, rather than either trait individually, that epitomises narcissism (Brown et al., 2009). Prior research has already established that disclosures related to certain personality traits will influence perceptions of a virtual team member (Cogliser, Gardner, Gavin, & Broberg, 2012). This paper extends the research by exploring how the disclosure of two separate aspects of narcissism, an employee’s inflated self-view and entitlement, may differentially affect coworker perceptions of an employee’s warmth and competence. The paper then considers the mediating role of warmth and competence perceptions in determining whether these traits will have a positive or negative affect on coworker behaviours toward a virtual teammate. Coworker Perceptions Heider (1958) posited that individuals are naïve psychologists trying to make sense of the world around them. A large part of this process is developing an understanding of why others act the way they do and how they will act in the future. As a result, co-workers will judge an employee in ways that they feel best predict the employee’s future actions. The anticipated future actions of the employee will then affect how a coworker behaves toward the employee. Previous research has demonstrated that most trait judgments fall along two dimensions of human cognition (Cislak & Wojciszke, 2008). The first dimension is comprised of perceptions related to an individual’s warmth such as their morality, trustworthiness, sincerity, kindness, and friendliness (Cuddy, Fiske, & Glick, 2008). These social judgments of an individual are related to the perceived intentions behind the individual’s behaviour (Fiske, Cuddy, Glick, & Xu, 2002). If an employee’s intentions are seen as being aligned with others in the group, then they will be judged as warm, but if their intentions are not seen as helping others, then the employee will be seen as cold (Cuddy et al., 2008). The second dimension is related to the employee’s competence and includes such perceptions as their skill, creativity, confidence, and intelligence (Cuddy et al., 2008). While warmth judgments relate to a person’s intentions, judgments of the employee’s competence are based upon expectations of whether the employee is capable of enacting their intentions (Fiske et al., 2002). For example, an employee may be paid to analyse their department’s workflow, or they may conduct the analysis during their lunch break with an altruistic intention to improve their department’s efficiency. Although the two scenarios represent different intentions, successful development of an analysis spreadsheet would indicate competence in both cases. Displaying Narcissism in a Virtual Team 443 When group members observe an employee’s actions, judgments along these two dimensions of warmth and competence account for a large proportion of the variance in how the employee will be evaluated (Wojciszke, Bazinska, & Jaworski, 1998). Prior work has suggested that the way a person is judged influences the observer’s subsequent actions toward the person (Cuddy et al., 2008). For example, if an employee is seen as both competent and warm, then their coworkers will respond with admiration and a desire to cooperate with the employee (Cuddy, Fiske, & Glick, 2007). On the other hand, if the employee is seen as competent but low on warmth then coworkers may respond with behaviours that actively harm the employee (Cuddy et al., 2008). In this way, judgments of an employee’s warmth and competence have a subsequent impact on the employee’s ability to do his or her job. When considering virtual teams, the information presented through self-disclosures can initiate a variety of salient coworker perceptions. If an employee holds an inflated view of their own abilities, they may present content including a greater amount of self-promotion and grandiosity (DeWall, Buffardi, Bonser, & Campbell, 2011; Mehdizadeh, 2010). The presentation of these inflated self-views may influence how co-workers perceive and behave toward the employee. Similarly, individual’s may share information that presents them as aggressive or self-absorbed, traits commonly associated with high entitlement (Campbell et al., 2004). Disclosure of entitlement may also influence coworker perceptions of the employee. Although narcissistic employees exhibit both inflated self-views and entitlement, it is unknown whether these two types of disclosure will have the same effect on coworker perceptions and behaviours. Warmth Individuals with inflated self-views tend to be happier, more optimistic, and have a greater capacity to care for others when compared with more realistic peers (Robins & Beer, 2001). These are traits easily presented within the virtual context. Individuals with inflated self-views are also more socially adjusted and lower in social anxiety, which may lead to more positive relationships with others (Kurt & Paulhus, 2008). As observers recognise indicators of positive relationships, they may view the employee as being more emotionally warm. Furthermore, individuals with inflated self-views may present inflated views of others. Implicit egotism refers to the tendency for people to think more highly of people, places, or things that are somehow connected to themselves, and coworkers may be biased to judge the employee favourably simply because the employee describes others in a positive manner (Mae, Carlston, & Skowronski, 1999). As a result, self-disclosure related to an employee’s inflated self-views may be associated with increased judgments of the employee’s warmth. 444 Jeffrey Paul Wehrung H1: There will be a positive relationship between self-disclosure related to an employee’s inflated self-views and coworker judgments of the employee’s warmth. Although inflated self-views are expected to have a positive association with warmth perceptions, the opposite effect may be expected regarding disclosure of entitlement. Entitled employees often create interpersonal hostility and conflict within relationships (Moeller, Crocker, & Bushman, 2009). These employees are also less loyal, more likely to insult or spread rumours about their coworkers, and more likely to become aggressive (Campbell et al., 2004; Harvey & Harris, 2010). These tendencies may explain why entitled individuals are often less secure in their relationships (Tolmacz & Mikulincer, 2011), and why their relationships are typically shorter and of lower quality (Allen et al., 2009). When the divisive nature of employees is projected to a virtual team, it may cause others to view them as less emotionally warm. Additionally, entitled individuals often have elevated, and potentially unrealistic, expectations regarding what they will receive from the work environment. As these expectations are unmet, the employee may reevaluate their environment leading to negative dispositions and lower levels of job satisfaction (Naumann, Minsky, & Sturman, 2002). Individuals with low job satisfaction are more likely to gripe about facets of their life rather than focusing on things that are positive (Judge & Hulin, 1993). I suggest that coworkers may further interpret the presentation of an entitled employee’s negative dispositions and low job satisfaction as an indicator of low warmth. H2: There will be a negative relationship between self-disclosure related to an employee’s level of entitlement and coworker judgments of the employee’s warmth. Competence It is also possible that disclosure of an employee’s inflated self-views and entitlement may influence perceptions of the employee’s competence. If an employee believes that they are competent, they may directly communicate this belief to others (Jones & Shrauger, 1970). In face-to-face interactions, inflated self-views are often projected through cues such as speaking louder and gesturing, which coworkers may interpret as signs of the employee’s competence (Anderson & Kilduff, 2009). In virtual team interactions, observers often utilise information related to an individual’s disclosure style to determine how positively to relate to that individual (Kahai, Huang, & Jestice, 2012). An employee may also choose to disclose positive information about their past achievements or directly boast about their abilities (Mehdizadeh, 2010; Miller, Cooke, Tsang, & Morgan, 1992). If coworkers take cues from the employee’s behaviours and self-presentation, the employee’s own inflated self-views may cause coworkers to develop similarly favourable impressions of the employee’s competence (Taylor & Brown, 1994). Displaying Narcissism in a Virtual Team 445 H3: There will be a positive relationship between self-disclosure related to employee’s inflated self-views and coworker judgments of the employee’s competence. Although observers may accept an employee’s self-presentation and other observable cues at face value, these cues are often filtered based upon other information. For example, De Bruin and Van Lange (2000) examined how information regarding an individual’s morality affected competence judgments. They found that competent targets only elicited more favourable impressions than incompetent targets when positive information was also presented about the target’s morality. When an individual’s morality is in question, observers are less likely to seek or care about information that confirms the individual’s competence (De Bruin & Van Lange, 2000). Previous research has linked entitlement with selfishness, aggression, and a willingness to take candy from children (Campbell et al., 2004). Entitled individuals are also more willing to participate in morally questionable behaviour such as deliberately cheating on a test (Brown et al., 2009). As observers recognise these behaviours, they may be less open to information that reflects positively on the employee’s competence. As a result, disclosures related to high entitlement will be negatively associated with coworker judgments of the employee’s competence. H4: There will be a negative relationship between self-disclosure related to an employee’s level of entitlement and coworker judgments of the employee’s competence. Coworker Behaviours An individual’s ability to perform well at work is dependent upon not only their own knowledge and skills but also their ability to garner support from others within their group and organisation. Yet the relationship between an employee’s individual characteristics and the support that they receive on the job has received relatively little attention (LePine & Van Dyne, 2001). One potential exception is the research on coworker support, which has demonstrated that individuals are more likely to participate in citizenship behaviours if they are receiving support from others within their group (Chiaburu & Harrison, 2008). However, even this stream of research has not clearly demonstrated whether the behaviour is directed toward the same individual who initially gave support, or if the behaviour is generally reciprocated within the group. In this section, I consider whether displays of an employee’s inflated self-views and entitlement will affect the amount of a discretionary behaviour they receive from others. Judgments of an individual’s competence and warmth account for a large proportion of the variance in how people evaluate behaviour and play an important role in determining how co-workers will react to an employee (Kelley & Michela, 1980). A coworker’s willingness to help an employee, for example, may be based upon expectations of future reciprocity (Murnighan, Kim, & Metzger, 1993; Organ, Podsakoff, & MacKenzie, 2006). If an employee’s self-views lead to higher perceptions of 446 Jeffrey Paul Wehrung warmth, coworkers may be more willing to share discretionary benefits with the employee. Because certain behaviours are not purely altruistic, coworkers may believe that an employee whom they see as low in warmth is actually seeking personal gain. Rather than helping the employee, coworkers may withhold help or even harm a cold employee (Fiske, Harris, & Cuddy, 2004). As a result, judgments of an employee’s warmth may mediate the relationship between the employee’s disclosure of inflated self-views or entitlement, and a coworker’s willingness to help the employee. H5a: Perceptions of an employee’s warmth will mediate the relationship between the employee’s displayed self-views and a coworker’s willingness to help the employee. H5b: Perceptions of an employee’s warmth will mediate the relationship between the employee’s displayed entitlement and a coworker’s willingness to help the employee. Not only must an employee be willing to reciprocate, but they must also have the capabilities and skills needed to return the favour (Murnighan et al., 1993; Organ et al., 2006). As such, a coworker’s final decision to help an employee is often based upon perceptions of the resources they believe the employee will bring to the relationship (Casciaro & Lobo, 2008). Coworkers are thus more likely to help an employee if they view the employee as being competent and capable of reciprocating in the future (Choi, 2009). In this way, perceptions of the employee’s competence will mediate the relationship between displays of an employee’s inflated self-views and entitlement and a coworker’s behaviour toward the employee. H6a: Perceptions of an employee’s competence will mediate the relationship between the employee’s displayed self-views and a coworker’s willingness to help the employee. H6b: Perceptions of an employee’s competence will mediate the relationship between the employee’s displayed entitlement and a coworker’s willingness to help the employee. Lab Experiment of Individuals Responding to Artificial Team Members The following study was designed to test whether coworkers would behave differently toward a member of a virtual team based upon what the team member disclosed. This investigation is a within-subjects experiment wherein participants received information regarding the expressed beliefs of four artificially created (fake) team members. Each team member had a different profile designed to be either high or low in terms of expressed self-views and high or low in the demonstrated level of entitlement. After reviewing each profile, the manipulation is reinforced as participants received further information in the form of the team members’ com- Displaying Narcissism in a Virtual Team 447 ments on a business-plan editing task. The participant then made evaluations of each team member and determined the allocation of discretionary benefits across members of the team. Participants Participants for this experiment included 112 (48 male, 61 female, and three unreported) undergraduate students, with an average age of 21.1 years, at a large public university. In exchange for participation, each participant received extra credit in a business foundations class. Procedure As participants arrived at the lab, they received a description of the experiment and an explanation of the procedure that would be followed. Participants were told that they would work in teams of 4 or 5 students each, but that they would not interact directly with other members of the team. All printed material implied that the experiment was investigating the use of social networking to facilitate working in virtual teams. Participants were publicly asked to indicate whether they had existing relationships with any of the other participants so that the investigator could ensure that they did not end up in the same team. In most time slots at least one pair of participants were acquainted, allowing the investigator to publicly acknowledge that these individuals would be placed into separate teams, and further establish the illusion that real team interactions would take place. The rest of the participants were then escorted to one of five separate rooms designated for use in this experiment, suggesting that team members would not be co-located in the same room. At the beginning of the experiment, participants were told that they would eventually participate in some ambiguously defined group task and in preparation for this later task each member of the team would get to know their teammates through the creation and distribution of a social networking profile (Appendix 1). For participants to believe that they were actually part of a real team, each participant created a profile page matching what they would later receive from their supposed teammates. Each participant opened a template containing four questions and was told that the answers they provided to these questions would be shared with the rest of their team. After answering all four questions, the participant was instructed to print the document. The process of having each participant create a profile page, and later receiving this page along with profiles for the four fake team members, created an illusion that all profiles were created by real participants. After creation of their profile, and in supposed preparation for the team task, participants were then asked to read a sample business plan document. They were instructed to underline and circle errors, as well as write comments in the margins. In addition to marking the document, participants commented on two questions regarding the business plan: “What do you think of this idea?” and “Who should ulti- 448 Jeffrey Paul Wehrung mately pay for this service?” These comments were again entered into a document template and printed for distribution to the team. The printed comments served to reinforce the initial manipulation. Following these preparatory tasks, participants were asked to wait while other team members finished, and to give the investigator time to assemble team packets. After approximately 10 minutes of “collation time”, the investigator gave each participant a copy of the profile page for all members of the participant’s team, including their own. Participants also received each team member’s printed comments regarding the business plan. Participants were told to “get to know” their team by reviewing the profiles for each team member. Participants were also told that they would be asked questions about their team members at the conclusion of the experiment and that it was very important for them to pay close attention to all of the material in the team folder. They continued to have access to this information throughout the remainder of the experiment. Each profile, including the participant’s, was printed on a coloured sheet of paper (Red, Blue, Green, Purple, or Yellow). Each team member’s comments regarding the sample business plan were printed on matching paper. After reading information about all members of the team, each participant completed a brief survey regarding their initial impressions of each team member. This survey captured assessments of each individual’s warmth and competence by asking participants to rate other members of their team regarding a series of trait adjectives. In order to measure the participant’s willingness to help members of their team, participants were given an opportunity to reward each of the team members by allocating 23 tickets for a supposed drawing between the four fake members of the team. By giving participants a prime number of tickets, they were unable to equally allocate the reward between two, three, or four fake team members. Manipulation Each of the team members was designed to be as either high or low on their projected self-views and high or low on their displayed level of entitlement. Each of the four possible combinations of factors (H/H, H/L, L/H, L/L) corresponded to a different team member in the analysis. This manipulation was done primarily through the profile pages provided to the participant but reiterated within the printed comments regarding the sample business plan. Each profile contained the answers to four questions, with two answers serving as a manipulation of a specific member’s self-views and two answers serving as a manipulation of the member’s level of entitlement. Manipulations were created and tested through multiple pilot studies con- Displaying Narcissism in a Virtual Team 449 ducted via MTurk1, with pilot participants indicating the extent to which various statements indicated inflated self-views (“boasting”, “cocky”, “overconfident”) or entitlement (“self-centred”, “entitled”, “needy”). Manipulations were iteratively modified in order to improve realism and avoid crossover between constructs. Final manipulations are available in Appendix 2. As multiple members had responses manipulating the same construct, there were eight possible answers to each of the four profile questions, two answers for each of the manipulated conditions. The specific statements for each manipulation were then randomly distributed between conditions such that, for example, a specific statement indicating high entitlement was equally likely to appear for a high selfview or a low self-view member of the team. Dependent Variables Warmth and competence. After reading all of the profiles, participants evaluated the warmth and competence of each team member. On a scale of 1 –“Strongly Disagree” to 7 –“Strongly Agree” the participant was asked to evaluate the extent to which twenty-four trait adjectives describe each of the team members (Abele, Uchronski, Suitner, & Wojciszke, 2008). Perceived warmth was measured with the terms “caring”, “helpful”, “sensitive”, “sympathetic”, “trustworthy”, “loyal”, “polite”, and “understanding” along with reverse scores on the items “conceited”, “dominant”, “egotistic”, and “hardhearted”. Perceived competence was then measured with traits terms “able”, “assertive”, “independent”, “intelligent”, “rational”, “active”, “creative” and “self-reliant” along with reverse scores on the items “insecure”, “lazy”, “shy”, and “vulnerable”. The Cronbach’s alpha reliability estimates of the 12item measure of perceived warmth and the 12-item measure of perceived competence were .95 and .92 respectively. Helping. The participant was given an opportunity to help other group members earn a potential reward by allocating them a certain number of tickets in a drawing. The number of tickets allocated to each team member was used as a measure of the participant’s willingness to help that specific member of the team. Analysis Hypotheses 1 and 3 predicted that indications of an individual’s inflated self-views would have a positive effect on perceptions of a team member’s warmth and competence. Contrary to Hypothesis 1, a 2X2 (self-views, entitlement) within subjects ANOVA revealed that inflated self-views had a significant negative effect on warmth 1 MTurk refers to Amazon's Mechanical Turk network (https://www.mturk.com). The MTurk system has been routinely used to administer surveys for simple behavioural research (Buhrmester, Kwang, & Gosling, 2011; Paolacci, Chandler, & Ipeirotis, 2010) with participants in the MTurk subject pool being at least as representative as traditional subject pools in representing typical internet users (Buhrmester et al., 2011). 450 Jeffrey Paul Wehrung perceptions (F(1,111) = 61.67, p < .001). As predicted in Hypothesis 3, team members who were presented as having inflated self-views were seen as being more competent (F(1,111) = 211.46, p < .001). In other words, while displaying inflated selfviews led to increased perceptions of competence, these displays simultaneously led to decreased perceptions of the employee’s warmth. Hypotheses 2 and 4 predicted that displays of entitlement would have a negative effect on perceptions of both warmth and competence. As predicted in Hypotheses 2 team members presented as being high on entitlement were seen as less warm (F(1,111) = 223.52, p < .01). As predicted in Hypothesis 4, those presented as high on entitlement were also viewed as being less competent (F(1,111) = 44.49, p < .01). Hypotheses 5a and 5b predicted that inflated self-views would indirectly influence participant behaviours through perceptions of team member warmth and competence. Inflated self-views had no direct effect on discretionary behaviour (F(1,109) = .00, p = 1.00), but when examining indirect effects, following the PROCESS procedure as outlined by Hayes (2012), the bootstrapped confidence intervals revealed a 95% bias-corrected interval that was both entirely below zero for warmth (-.67 to -.27) and entirely above zero for competence (.05 to .78) perceptions. In other words, while inflated self-views had no direct effect on participant behaviours, the demonstrated self-views had a negative indirect effect through warmth perceptions and a positive indirect effect through competence perceptions. These two indirect effects then wash each other out when looking at the overall effect of inflated self-views on the participant’s behaviour (Table 1). Hypothesis 6a and 6b predicted that displays of entitlement would also indirectly influence participant behaviours through perceptions of an individual’s warmth and competence. There was a significant negative direct effect of demonstrated entitlement (F(1,109) = 76.72, p < .001) on participant discretionary behaviour. In other words, the participant was significantly less willing to help a team member who was presented as being entitled. In testing the mediation, bootstrapped confidence intervals revealed a 95% bias-corrected interval that is entirely below zero for both warmth (-1.69 to -.80) and competence (-.40 to -.03) perceptions. This suggests that the negative effect of displayed entitlement on participant behaviour is mediated by perceptions of both warmth and competence. Summary and Discussion This experiment examined the separate effects that accrue when an employee displays their inflated self-views and entitlement. Participants were less willing to help a team member when that individual was projected as having a high level of entitlement. This detrimental effect of entitlement was mediated by perceptions of warmth and competence. This suggests that although authenticity and self-disclosure are typically viewed as socially beneficial, all employees, but narcissistic em- Displaying Narcissism in a Virtual Team 451 ployees, in particular, should be judicious when choosing to disclose content that might indicate a higher level of entitlement. Although indications of an individual’s inflated self-views did not directly influence participant behaviour, inflated self-views had a positive indirect effect through competence perceptions. This suggests that employees benefit from exhibiting confidence, even overconfidence, as it may lead team members to perceive them as more competent. From an observer perspective, this research suggests caution when making competence judgments, as promoted self-views may not be directly relevant to the task or team goals but can still influence observer perceptions and behaviours. To avoid this bias, observers are encouraged to think about whether their judgments are based on true indicators of task competence or a generalised expression of inflated self-views. Surprisingly, inflated self-views had a negative, rather than positive, effect on warmth perceptions. This may suggest that virtual interactions function differently than face-to-face interactions with regard to forming warmth perceptions. One possibility is that perceivers expect high self-monitoring in virtual communications, and scrutinise the intentions behind all such disclosures. This may require social perceptions to develop over a longer period of time, whereas competence related perceptions might be acquired quickly in zero-acquaintance relationships. This aligns with related research suggesting that swift judgments of trust in virtual teams is more heavily based on the observer’s own trust propensities, while judgments of the individual’s actual trustworthiness take time to develop (Robert et al., 2009). It is also possible that in the absence of real social interactions, expressions of inflated self-views may have come across simply as boastful, arrogant, or even hostile (Paulhus, 1998). Consistent with the lab results, while boasting and hostility lead to increased perceptions of an individual’s competence, individuals seen as boasting may be liked less than those who more subtlety express their self-views (Kervyn, Judd, & Yzerbyt, 2009; Miller et al., 1992). It is important to note that this research is focused on the development of perceptions in newly formed relationships, and does not seek to describe how employees will interact within long-standing virtual teams. The research also focuses on distributed teams where team members have not had the benefit of getting acquainted through face-to-face interactions. Further research might examine the effects of entitlement and inflated self-views in longer-standing teams or virtual teams that form after initial relationships have been established. The applicability of this research is also potentially limited by the age of workers being considered. Although younger employees are likely to have social media content examined prior to joining a virtual team, older workers may choose not to disclose as much information or may choose to censor what information is made publically available. Older workers may also be less likely to consider a coworker’s online profile prior to beginning a project. 452 Jeffrey Paul Wehrung Overall, this investigation contributes to the literature on virtual teams by examining how choices in virtual self-disclosure may affect coworker perceptions of and behaviours toward a specific team member. Although prior work has examined how team member personalities can affect behaviours within a virtual team, this research explicitly examines narcissism and how online disclosures related to narcissistic traits affect initial team member perceptions. Furthermore, by distinguishing between displays of an individual’s inflated self-views and their level of entitlement, this research highlights the needs for a more nuanced examination of how the millennial generation discloses information related to their narcissistic tendencies. The results suggest that it is important for employees to be deliberate in what information they choose to disclose or withhold when working in a virtual environment. More specifically, this research suggests that narcissistic employees benefit from disclosing their inflated self-views as long as this information relates to competence related areas while being judicious in sharing information that may indicate a high level of entitlement. Figure 1: Model with Correlations Displaying Narcissism in a Virtual Team 453 Table 1: Specific Indirect Effects Using Bootstrapping Bootstrapping 95% Confidence Interval Indirect Effects Effect SE Lower Upper Inflated Self-View -> Perceived Warmth -> Help Received -.45 .11 -.67 -.27 Inflated Self-View -> Perceived Competence -> Help Received .43 .19 .05 .78 Entitlement -> Perceived Warmth -> Help Received -1.23 .22 -1.68 -.81 Entitlement -> Perceived Competence -> Help Received -.20 .09 -.40 -.04 Note. N = 436 References Abele, A. E., Uchronski, M., Suitner, C., & Wojciszke, B. (2008). Towards an operationalization of the fundamental dimensions of agency and communion: Trait content ratings in five countries considering valence and frequency of word occurrence. European Journal of Social Psychology, 38(7), 1202-1217. doi:10.1002/ejsp.575 Al-Ani, B., Horspool, A., & Bligh, M. C. (2011). Collaborating with 'virtual strangers': Towards developing a framework for leadership in distributed teams. Leadership, 7(3), 219-249. doi: 10.1177/1742715011407382 Allen, T. D., Johnson, H. A. M., Xu, X., Biga, A., Rodopman, O. B., & Ottinot, R. C. (2009). Mentoring and protege narcissistic entitlement. Journal of Career Development, 35(4), 385-405. doi:10.1177/0894845308327735 Alloway, T., Runac, R., Qureshi, M., & Kemp, G. (2014). Is Facebook linked to selfishness? Investigating the relationships among social media use, empathy, and narcissism. Social Networking, 3(3), 150-158. doi:10.4236/sn.2014.33020 Anderson, C., & Kilduff, G. J. (2009). Why do dominant personalities attain influence in faceto-face groups? The competence-signaling effects of trait dominance. Journal of Personality and Social Psychology, 96(2), 491-503. doi:10.1037/a0014201 Bargh, J. A., McKenna, K. Y. A., & Fitzsimons, G. M. (2002). Can you see the real me? Activation and expression of the "true self" on the Internet. Journal of Social Issues, 58(1), 33-48. doi: 10.1111/1540-4560.00247 Breuer, C., Huffmeier, J., & Hertel, G. (2016). Does trust matter more in virtual teams? A metaanalysis of trust and team effectiveness considering virtuality and documentation as moderators. Journal of Applied Psychology, 101(8), 1151-1177. doi:10.1037/apl0000113 Brown, R. P., Budzek, K., & Tamborski, M. (2009). On the meaning and measure of narcissism. Personality and Social Psychology Bulletin, 35(7), 951-964. doi:10.1177/0146167209335461 Buffardi, L. E., & Campbell, W. K. (2008). Narcissism and social networking web sites. Personality and Social Psychology Bulletin, 34, 1303-1314. doi:10.1177/0146167208320061 Buhrmester, M., Kwang, T., & Gosling, S. D. (2011). Amazon's Mechanical Turk: A new source of inexpensive, yet high-quality, data? Perspectives on Psychological Science, 6(1), 3-5. doi: 10.1177/1745691610393980 454 Jeffrey Paul Wehrung Campbell, W. K., Bonacci, A. M., Shelton, J., Exline, J. J., & Bushman, B. J. (2004). Psychological entitlement: Interpersonal consequences and validation of a self-report measure. Journal of Personality Assessment, 83(1), 29-45. Casciaro, T., & Lobo, M. S. (2008). When competence is irrelevant: The role of interpersonal affect in task-telated ties. Administrative Science Quarterly, 53(4), 655-684. Chiaburu, D. S., & Harrison, D. A. (2008). Do peers make the place? Conceptual synthesis and meta-analysis of coworker effects on perceptions, attitudes, OCBs, and performance. Journal of Applied Psychology, 93(5), 1082-1103. doi:10.1037/0021-9010.93.5.1082 Choi, J. N. (2009). Collective dynamics of citizenship behaviour: What group characteristics promote group-level helping? Journal of Management Studies, 46(8), 1396-1420. doi:10.1111/j. 1467-6486.2009.00851.x Cislak, A., & Wojciszke, B. (2008). Agency and communion are inferred from actions serving interests of self or others. European Journal of Social Psychology, 38(7), 1103-1110. doi:10.1002/ ejsp.554 Cogliser, C. C., Gardner, W. L., Gavin, M. B., & Broberg, J. C. (2012). Big Five personality factors and leader emergence in virtual teams: Relationships with team trustworthiness, member performance contributions, and team performance. Group & Organization Management, 37(6), 752-784. doi:10.1177/1059601112464266 Corry, N., Merritt, R. D., Mrug, S., & Pamp, B. (2008). The factor structure of the Narcissistic Personality Inventory. Journal of Personality Assessment, 90(6), 593-600. doi: 10.1080/00223890802388590 Cuddy, A. J. C., Fiske, S. T., & Glick, P. (2007). The BIAS map: Behaviors from intergroup affect and stereotypes. Journal of Personality and Social Psychology, 92(4), 631-648. doi: 10.1037/0022-3514.92.4.631 Cuddy, A. J. C., Fiske, S. T., & Glick, P. (2008). Warmth and competence as universal dimensions of social perception: The stereotype content model and the BIAS map. Advances in Experimental Social Psychology, 40, 61-149. doi:10.1016/s0065-2601(07)00002-0 De Bruin, E. N. M., & Van Lange, P. A. M. (2000). What people look for in others: Influences of the perceiver and the perceived on information selection. Personality and Social Psychology Bulletin, 26(2), 206-219. DeWall, C. N., Buffardi, L. E., Bonser, I., & Campbell, W. K. (2011). Narcissism and implicit attention seeking: Evidence from linguistic analyses of social networking and online presentation. Personality and Individual Differences, 51(1), 57-62. doi:10.1016/j.paid.2011.03.011 Fiske, S. T., Cuddy, A. J. C., Glick, P., & Xu, J. (2002). A model of (often mixed) stereotype content: Competence and warmth respectively follow from perceived status and competition. Journal of Personality and Social Psychology, 82(6), 878-902. doi:10.1037//0022-3514.82.6.878 Fiske, S. T., Harris, L. T., & Cuddy, A. J. C. (2004). Why ordinary people torture enemy prisoners. Science, 306(5701), 1482-1483. doi:10.1126/science.1103788 Forest, A., & Wood, J. (2012). When social networking is not working: Individuals with low selfesteem recognize but do not reap the benefits of self-disclosure on Facebook. Psychological Science, (23), 295-302. Gilson, L. L., Maynard, M. T., Young, N. C. J., Vartiainen, M., & Hakonen, M. (2015). Virtual teams research: 10 years, 10 themes, and 10 opportunities. Journal of Management, 41(5), 1313-1337. doi:10.1177/0149206314559946 Displaying Narcissism in a Virtual Team 455 Harvey, P., & Harris, K. J. (2010). Frustration-based outcomes of entitlement and the influence of supervisor communication. Human Relations, 63(11), 1639-1660. doi: 10.1177/0018726710362923 Harvey, P., & Martinko, M. J. (2009). An empirical examination of the role of attributions in psychological entitlement and its outcomes. Journal of Organizational Behavior, 30(4), 459-476. doi:10.1002/job.549 Hayes, A. F. (2012). PROCESS: A versatile computational tool for observed variable mediation, moderation, and conditional process modeling [White paper]. Retrieved from http:// www.afhayes.com/public/process2012.pdf. Heider, F. (1958). The psychology of interpersonal relations. New York, NY: Wiley. Holton, J. A. (2001). Building trust and collaboration in a virtual team. Team Performance Management: An International Journal, 7(3/4), 36-47. doi:10.1108/13527590110395621 Jones, S. C., & Shrauger, J. S. (1970). Reputation and self-evaluation as determinants of attractiveness. Sociometry, 33(3), 276-286. doi: 10.2307/2786158 Judge, T. A., & Hulin, C. L. (1993). Job-satisfaction as a reflection of disposition – a multiple source causal-analysis. Organizational Behavior and Human Decision Processes, 56(3), 388-421. doi:10.1006/obhd.1993.1061 Kahai, S. S., Huang, R., & Jestice, R. J. (2012). Interaction effect of leadership and communication media on feedback positivity in virtual teams. Group & Organization Management, 37(6), 716-751. doi:10.1177/1059601112462061 Kelley, H. H., & Michela, J. L. (1980). Attribution theory and research. Annual Review of Psychology, 31, 457-501. Kervyn, N., Judd, C. M., & Yzerbyt, V. Y. (2009). You want to appear competent? Be mean! You want to appear sociable? Be lazy! Group differentiation and the compensation effect. Journal of Experimental Social Psychology, 45(2), 363-367. doi:10.1016/j.jesp.2008.08.006 Kirkman, B. L., Rosen, B., Gibson, C., Tesluk, P., & McPherson, S. (2002). Five challenges to virtual team success: Lessons from Sabre, Inc. The Academy of Management Executive, 67-79. Kurt, A., & Paulhus, D. L. (2008). Moderators of the adaptiveness of self-enhancement: Operationalization, motivational domain, adjustment facet, and evaluator. Journal of Research in Personality, 42(4), 839-853. doi:10.1016/j.jrp.2007.11.005 LePine, J. A., & Van Dyne, L. (2001). Peer responses to low performers: An attributional model of helping in the context of groups. Academy of Management Review, 26(1), 67-84. Mae, L., Carlston, D. E., & Skowronski, J. J. (1999). Spontaneous trait transference to familiar communicators: Is a little knowledge a dangerous thing? Journal of Personality and Social Psychology, 77(2), 233-246. McKenna, K. Y. A., Green, A., & Gleason, M. (2002). Relationship formation on the Internet: What’s the big attraction? Journal of Social Issues, 58(1), 9-31. Mehdizadeh, S. (2010). Self-presentation 2.0: Narcissism and self-esteem on Facebook. Cyberpsychology, Behavior and Social Networking, 13, 357-364. doi:10.1089/cyber.2009.0257 Miller, L. C., Cooke, L. L., Tsang, J., & Morgan, F. (1992). Should I brag – nature and impact of positive and boastful disclosures for women and men. Human Communication Research, 18(3), 364-399. 456 Jeffrey Paul Wehrung Moeller, S. J., Crocker, J., & Bushman, B. J. (2009). Creating hostility and conflict: Effects of entitlement and self-image goals. Journal of Experimental Social Psychology, 45(2), 448-452. doi: 10.1016/j.jesp.2008.11.005 Murnighan, J. K., Kim, J. W., & Metzger, A. R. (1993). The volunteer dilemma. Administrative Science Quarterly, 38(4), 515-538. Naumann, S. E., Minsky, B. D., & Sturman, M. C. (2002). The use of the concept “entitlement” in management literature: A historical review, synthesis, and discussion of compensation policy implications. Human Resource Management Review, 12(1). Organ, D. W., Podsakoff, P. M., & MacKenzie, S. B. (2006). Organizational citizenship behavior: Its nature, antecedents, and consequences. Thousand Oaks, CA: Sage. Paolacci, G., Chandler, J., & Ipeirotis, P. G. (2010). Running experiments on Amazon Mechanical Turk. Judgment and Decision Making, 5(5), 411-419. Paulhus, D. L. (1998). Interpersonal and intrapsychic adaptiveness of trait self-enhancement: A mixed blessing? Journal of Personality and Social Psychology, 74(5), 1197-1208. Posey, C., Lowry, P., Robers, T., & Ellis, T. S. (2010). Proposing the online community self-disclosure model: the case of working professionals in France and the U.K. who use online communities. European Journal of Information Systems(19), 181-195. doi:10.1057/ejis.2010.15 Raskin, R., & Terry, H. (1988). A principal-components analysis of the Narcissistic Personality Inventory and further evidence of its construct validity. Journal of Personality and Social Psychology, 54(5), 890-902. Robert, L. P., Dennis, A. R., & Hung, Y. T. C. (2009). Individual swift trust and knowledgebased trust in face-to-face and virtual team members. Journal of Management Information Systems, 26(2), 241-279. doi:10.2753/mis0742-1222260210 Robins, R. W., & Beer, J. S. (2001). Positive illusions about the self: Short-term benefits and long-term costs. Journal of Personality and Social Psychology, 80(2), 340-352. doi: 10.1037//0022-3514.80.2.340 Rodrigues, S., Oliveira, J., & de Souza, J. M. (2006). Recommendation for team and virtual community formations based on competence mining. In W. Shen, K. M. Chao, Z. Lin, J. P. A. Barthes, & A. James (Eds.), Computer Supported Cooperative Work in Design II (Vol. 3865, 365-374). Berlin: Springer-Verlag Berlin. Taylor, S. E., & Brown, J. D. (1994). Positive illusions and well being revisited – separating fact from fiction. Psychological Bulletin, 116(1), 21-27. Templeton, G. F., Luo, X., Giberson, T. R., & Campbell, N. (2012). Leader personal influences on membership decisions in moderated online social networking groups. Decision Support Systems, 54(1), 655-664. doi:10.1016/j.dss.2012.08.011 Tolmacz, R., & Mikulincer, M. (2011). The sense of entitlement in romantic relationships – scale construction, factor structure, construct validity, and its association with attachment orientations. Psychoanalytic Psychology, 28(1), 75-94. doi:10.1037/a0021479 Twenge, J. M., & Campbell, W. K. (2009). The narcissism epidemic: Living in the age of entitlement. New York, NY: Free Press. Wojciszke, B., Bazinska, R., & Jaworski, M. (1998). On the dominance of moral categories in impression formation. Personality and Social Psychology Bulletin, 24(12), 1251-1263. Displaying Narcissism in a Virtual Team 457 Appendix 1: Participant Instructions General Instructions It is common practice for employees to work on projects with people they have either never met or with whom they have had only brief interactions. In many cases employees are located in distant parts of the country or world and may never have a face-to-face conversation. This lack of physical contact has a number of detrimental consequences for both decision-making and implementation tasks. In this study, each team member has an opportunity to communicate information about themselves to their teammates prior to beginning a team task. This communication will occur through the creation of a social networking profile. We will then investigate the effect of the profile on the team’s ability to perform different types of tasks. Detailed Instruction (C -2) This study will take approximately one hour to complete and will go as follows. 1. You will be given 10 minutes to create a Facebook style profile by answering questions about your interests and experience. 2. You will be given 15 minutes completing a practice exercise related to a later group assignment. This exercise entails reviewing an article about a current event on campus and highlighting portions of the document to be edited. 3. You will spend 5 minutes “getting acquainted” with your team by reviewing each team member’s profile sheet. 4. You will spend approximately 10 minutes completing an online survey while the rest of your team members complete their earlier tasks. 5. You will have 15 minutes to read each team member’s analysis of the practice exercises 6. You will be given one or more tasks to complete as a team. 458 Jeffrey Paul Wehrung Appendix 2: Sample Manipulation Question 1: Your best friend entered you into a local curling competition. In 1-2 sentences please describe your expectations. (Note: Curling is an Olympic sport where you slide round stones across the ice while your teammates decrease the friction of the ice through sweeping in front of the stone.) Inflated Self-View High Answer: It doesn't seem to be a very difficult game, so I should be able to do really well. I'm a fast learner, especially when it comes to sports. Answer: I have played a lot more demanding sports than this, and I am sure I can pick up the strategy quickly. I’m not saying that I will single-handedly carry the team, but am positive I will be able to hold my own even against experienced players. Inflated Self-View Low Answer: I haven't really spent much time on the ice. Curling is an Olympic sport, which is more than a little intimidating. That said, I would still give it a try. Answer: I have never even heard of curling before, so I doubt I would be worth much for the team. I’m not really a sports person. Entitlement High Answer: I just hope that the rest of my team is decent so that I don't look foolish out there. I deserve to be on a good team. Answer: My friend is the one who entered us in the competition, so I would expect him to make sure that it wasn’t a miserable experience for me. Entitlement Low Answer: All that really matters is that everyone on the team has a fun time. Answer: The most important thing is that I am helping a friend. It doesn’t matter whether or not I am any good at curling, sometimes you have to suck it up and do something you may not like in order to help your friends. Displaying Narcissism in a Virtual Team 459 Question 2: What would you do if you won $1 Million dollars in the lottery? Inflated Self-View High Answer: I would invest the $1Million into the stock market. It takes money to make money. If I had that much to start with I could do a lot of day-trading and be set for life. Answer: I have this creative flare that most people don’t understand. With $1M I could start my own business making and distributing custom shirts for concerts like SXSW. Inflated Self-View Low Answer: I don’t know much about investing, so I would just put the money into something conservative. I don’t want to screw up and lose it. Answer: I’m admittedly not very good with money, I would probably blow some of it before one of my parents would force me to get a financial advisor. Entitlement High Answer: I would buy some toys for myself like a boat, a new pair of hiking boots, a new watch. I would obviously buy a big house (by the water) and hire a maid. After living in a dorm room for three years I deserve a nice place to live. Answer: I would finally get all the things I deserve from life. Entitlement Low Answer: My older brother is about to lose his business. If I brought in some money I think he could turn it around. This would mean a lot to my family and especially my parents. Answer: There is this micro-financing thing in Africa where women receive loans in order to start their own businesses. I would want to share in whatever way I could. 460 Jeffrey Paul Wehrung

Abstract

The digital working life affects not only the way employees work, but also the way employees interact within a team. Virtual teamwork is becoming increasingly common, with coworkers often building their initial relationships through online interactions such as social media. This paper examines how disclosure of narcissistic tendencies, such as an inflated self-view and/or sense of entitlement, differentially affect coworker’s initial perceptions of an employee’s warmth and competence as well as influencing coworker behaviours toward the employee. Although being authentic is generally regarded as a positive trait, this research suggests that narcissistic employees should be judicious in what information they disclose when joining a virtual team. While sharing information that suggests inflated self-views may help in establishing the relationship, disclosure of entitlement may have detrimental effects.

References
Abele, A. E., Uchronski, M., Suitner, C., & Wojciszke, B. (2008). Towards an operationalization of the fundamental dimensions of agency and communion: Trait content ratings in five countries considering valence and frequency of word occurrence. European Journal of Social Psychology, 38(7), 1202-1217. doi:10.1002/ejsp.575 https://doi.org/10.1002/ejsp.575
Al-Ani, B., Horspool, A., & Bligh, M. C. (2011). Collaborating with 'virtual strangers': Towards developing a framework for leadership in distributed teams. Leadership, 7(3), 219-249. doi:10.1177/1742715011407382 https://doi.org/10.1177/1742715011407382
Allen, T. D., Johnson, H. A. M., Xu, X., Biga, A., Rodopman, O. B., & Ottinot, R. C. (2009). Mentoring and protege narcissistic entitlement. Journal of Career Development, 35(4), 385-405. doi:10.1177/0894845308327735 https://doi.org/10.1177/0894845308327735
Alloway, T., Runac, R., Qureshi, M., & Kemp, G. (2014). Is Facebook linked to selfishness? Investigating the relationships among social media use, empathy, and narcissism. Social Networking, 3(3), 150-158. doi:10.4236/sn.2014.33020 https://doi.org/10.4236/sn.2014.33020
Anderson, C., & Kilduff, G. J. (2009). Why do dominant personalities attain influence in face-to-face groups? The competence-signaling effects of trait dominance. Journal of Personality and Social Psychology, 96(2), 491-503. doi:10.1037/a0014201 https://doi.org/10.1037/a0014201
Bargh, J. A., McKenna, K. Y. A., & Fitzsimons, G. M. (2002). Can you see the real me? Activation and expression of the "true self" on the Internet. Journal of Social Issues, 58(1), 33-48. doi: 10.1111/1540-4560.00247 https://doi.org/10.1111/1540-4560.00247
Breuer, C., Huffmeier, J., & Hertel, G. (2016). Does trust matter more in virtual teams? A meta-analysis of trust and team effectiveness considering virtuality and documentation as moderators. Journal of Applied Psychology, 101(8), 1151-1177. doi:10.1037/apl0000113 https://doi.org/10.1037/apl0000113
Brown, R. P., Budzek, K., & Tamborski, M. (2009). On the meaning and measure of narcissism. Personality and Social Psychology Bulletin, 35(7), 951-964. doi:10.1177/0146167209335461 https://doi.org/10.1177/0146167209335461
Buffardi, L. E., & Campbell, W. K. (2008). Narcissism and social networking web sites. Personality and Social Psychology Bulletin, 34, 1303-1314. doi:10.1177/0146167208320061 https://doi.org/10.1177/0146167208320061
Buhrmester, M., Kwang, T., & Gosling, S. D. (2011). Amazon's Mechanical Turk: A new source of inexpensive, yet high-quality, data? Perspectives on Psychological Science, 6(1), 3-5. doi:10.1177/1745691610393980 https://doi.org/10.1177/1745691610393980
Campbell, W. K., Bonacci, A. M., Shelton, J., Exline, J. J., & Bushman, B. J. (2004). Psychological entitlement: Interpersonal consequences and validation of a self-report measure. Journal of Personality Assessment, 83(1), 29-45. https://doi.org/10.1207/s15327752jpa8301_04
Casciaro, T., & Lobo, M. S. (2008). When competence is irrelevant: The role of interpersonal affect in task-telated ties. Administrative Science Quarterly, 53(4), 655-684. https://doi.org/10.2189/asqu.53.4.655
Chiaburu, D. S., & Harrison, D. A. (2008). Do peers make the place? Conceptual synthesis and meta-analysis of coworker effects on perceptions, attitudes, OCBs, and performance. Journal of Applied Psychology, 93(5), 1082-1103. doi:10.1037/0021-9010.93.5.1082 https://doi.org/10.1037/0021-9010.93.5.1082
Choi, J. N. (2009). Collective dynamics of citizenship behaviour: What group characteristics promote group-level helping? Journal of Management Studies, 46(8), 1396-1420. doi:10.1111/j.1467-6486.2009.00851.x https://doi.org/10.1111/j.1467-6486.2009.00851.x
Cislak, A., & Wojciszke, B. (2008). Agency and communion are inferred from actions serving interests of self or others. European Journal of Social Psychology, 38(7), 1103-1110. doi:10.1002/ejsp.554 https://doi.org/10.1002/ejsp.554
Cogliser, C. C., Gardner, W. L., Gavin, M. B., & Broberg, J. C. (2012). Big Five personality factors and leader emergence in virtual teams: Relationships with team trustworthiness, member performance contributions, and team performance. Group & Organization Management, 37(6), 752-784. doi:10.1177/1059601112464266 https://doi.org/10.1177/1059601112464266
Corry, N., Merritt, R. D., Mrug, S., & Pamp, B. (2008). The factor structure of the Narcissistic Personality Inventory. Journal of Personality Assessment, 90(6), 593-600. doi:10.1080/00223890802388590 https://doi.org/10.1080/00223890802388590
Cuddy, A. J. C., Fiske, S. T., & Glick, P. (2007). The BIAS map: Behaviors from intergroup affect and stereotypes. Journal of Personality and Social Psychology, 92(4), 631-648. doi:10.1037/0022-3514.92.4.631 https://doi.org/10.1037/0022-3514.92.4.631
Cuddy, A. J. C., Fiske, S. T., & Glick, P. (2008). Warmth and competence as universal dimensions of social perception: The stereotype content model and the BIAS map. Advances in Experimental Social Psychology, 40, 61-149. doi:10.1016/s0065-2601(07)00002-0 https://doi.org/10.1016/S0065-2601(07)00002-0
De Bruin, E. N. M., & Van Lange, P. A. M. (2000). What people look for in others: Influences of the perceiver and the perceived on information selection. Personality and Social Psychology Bulletin, 26(2), 206-219. https://doi.org/10.1177/0146167200264007
DeWall, C. N., Buffardi, L. E., Bonser, I., & Campbell, W. K. (2011). Narcissism and implicit attention seeking: Evidence from linguistic analyses of social networking and online presentation. Personality and Individual Differences, 51(1), 57-62. doi:10.1016/j.paid.2011.03.011 https://doi.org/10.1016/j.paid.2011.03.011
Fiske, S. T., Cuddy, A. J. C., Glick, P., & Xu, J. (2002). A model of (often mixed) stereotype content: Competence and warmth respectively follow from perceived status and competition. Journal of Personality and Social Psychology, 82(6), 878-902. doi:10.1037//0022-3514.82.6.878 https://doi.org/10.1037/0022-3514.82.6.878
Fiske, S. T., Harris, L. T., & Cuddy, A. J. C. (2004). Why ordinary people torture enemy prisoners. Science, 306(5701), 1482-1483. doi:10.1126/science.1103788 https://doi.org/10.1126/science.1103788
Forest, A., & Wood, J. (2012). When social networking is not working: Individuals with low self-esteem recognize but do not reap the benefits of self-disclosure on Facebook. Psychological Science, (23), 295-302. https://doi.org/10.1177/0956797611429709
Gilson, L. L., Maynard, M. T., Young, N. C. J., Vartiainen, M., & Hakonen, M. (2015). Virtual teams research: 10 years, 10 themes, and 10 opportunities. Journal of Management, 41(5), 1313-1337. doi:10.1177/0149206314559946 https://doi.org/10.1177/0149206314559946
Harvey, P., & Harris, K. J. (2010). Frustration-based outcomes of entitlement and the influence of supervisor communication. Human Relations, 63(11), 1639-1660. doi:10.1177/0018726710362923 https://doi.org/10.1177/0018726710362923
Harvey, P., & Martinko, M. J. (2009). An empirical examination of the role of attributions in psychological entitlement and its outcomes. Journal of Organizational Behavior, 30(4), 459-476. doi:10.1002/job.549 https://doi.org/10.1002/job.549
Hayes, A. F. (2012). PROCESS: A versatile computational tool for observed variable mediation, moderation, and conditional process modeling [White paper]. Retrieved from http://www.afhayes.com/public/process2012.pdf.
Heider, F. (1958). The psychology of interpersonal relations. New York, NY: Wiley. https://doi.org/10.1037/10628-000
Holton, J. A. (2001). Building trust and collaboration in a virtual team. Team Performance Management: An International Journal, 7(3/4), 36-47. doi:10.1108/13527590110395621 https://doi.org/10.1108/13527590110395621
Jones, S. C., & Shrauger, J. S. (1970). Reputation and self-evaluation as determinants of attractiveness. Sociometry, 33(3), 276-286. doi: 10.2307/2786158 https://doi.org/10.2307/2786158
Judge, T. A., & Hulin, C. L. (1993). Job-satisfaction as a reflection of disposition – a multiple source causal-analysis. Organizational Behavior and Human Decision Processes, 56(3), 388-421. doi:10.1006/obhd.1993.1061 https://doi.org/10.1006/obhd.1993.1061
Kahai, S. S., Huang, R., & Jestice, R. J. (2012). Interaction effect of leadership and communication media on feedback positivity in virtual teams. Group & Organization Management, 37(6), 716-751. doi:10.1177/1059601112462061 https://doi.org/10.1177/1059601112462061
Kelley, H. H., & Michela, J. L. (1980). Attribution theory and research. Annual Review of Psychology, 31, 457-501. https://doi.org/10.1146/annurev.ps.31.020180.002325
Kervyn, N., Judd, C. M., & Yzerbyt, V. Y. (2009). You want to appear competent? Be mean! You want to appear sociable? Be lazy! Group differentiation and the compensation effect. Journal of Experimental Social Psychology, 45(2), 363-367. doi:10.1016/j.jesp.2008.08.006 https://doi.org/10.1016/j.jesp.2008.08.006
Kirkman, B. L., Rosen, B., Gibson, C., Tesluk, P., & McPherson, S. (2002). Five challenges to virtual team success: Lessons from Sabre, Inc. The Academy of Management Executive, 67-79. https://doi.org/10.5465/AME.2002.8540322
Kurt, A., & Paulhus, D. L. (2008). Moderators of the adaptiveness of self-enhancement: Operationalization, motivational domain, adjustment facet, and evaluator. Journal of Research in Personality, 42(4), 839-853. doi:10.1016/j.jrp.2007.11.005 https://doi.org/10.1016/j.jrp.2007.11.005
LePine, J. A., & Van Dyne, L. (2001). Peer responses to low performers: An attributional model of helping in the context of groups. Academy of Management Review, 26(1), 67-84. https://doi.org/10.5465/amr.2001.4011953
Mae, L., Carlston, D. E., & Skowronski, J. J. (1999). Spontaneous trait transference to familiar communicators: Is a little knowledge a dangerous thing? Journal of Personality and Social Psychology, 77(2), 233-246. https://doi.org/10.1037/0022-3514.77.2.233
McKenna, K. Y. A., Green, A., & Gleason, M. (2002). Relationship formation on the Internet: What’s the big attraction? Journal of Social Issues, 58(1), 9-31. https://doi.org/10.1111/1540-4560.00246
Mehdizadeh, S. (2010). Self-presentation 2.0: Narcissism and self-esteem on Facebook. Cyberpsychology, Behavior and Social Networking, 13, 357-364. doi:10.1089/cyber.2009.0257 https://doi.org/10.1089/cyber.2009.0257
Miller, L. C., Cooke, L. L., Tsang, J., & Morgan, F. (1992). Should I brag – nature and impact of positive and boastful disclosures for women and men. Human Communication Research, 18(3), 364-399. https://doi.org/10.1111/j.1468-2958.1992.tb00557.x
Moeller, S. J., Crocker, J., & Bushman, B. J. (2009). Creating hostility and conflict: Effects of entitlement and self-image goals. Journal of Experimental Social Psychology, 45(2), 448-452. doi:10.1016/j.jesp.2008.11.005 https://doi.org/10.1016/j.jesp.2008.11.005
Murnighan, J. K., Kim, J. W., & Metzger, A. R. (1993). The volunteer dilemma. Administrative Science Quarterly, 38(4), 515-538. https://doi.org/10.2307/2393335
Naumann, S. E., Minsky, B. D., & Sturman, M. C. (2002). The use of the concept “entitlement” in management literature: A historical review, synthesis, and discussion of compensation policy implications. Human Resource Management Review, 12(1). https://doi.org/10.1016/S1053-4822(01)00055-9
Organ, D. W., Podsakoff, P. M., & MacKenzie, S. B. (2006). Organizational citizenship behavior: Its nature, antecedents, and consequences. Thousand Oaks, CA: Sage.
Paolacci, G., Chandler, J., & Ipeirotis, P. G. (2010). Running experiments on Amazon Mechanical Turk. Judgment and Decision Making, 5(5), 411-419.
Paulhus, D. L. (1998). Interpersonal and intrapsychic adaptiveness of trait self-enhancement: A mixed blessing? Journal of Personality and Social Psychology, 74(5), 1197-1208. https://doi.org/10.1037/0022-3514.74.5.1197
Posey, C., Lowry, P., Robers, T., & Ellis, T. S. (2010). Proposing the online community self-disclosure model: the case of working professionals in France and the U.K. who use online communities. European Journal of Information Systems(19), 181-195. doi:10.1057/ejis.2010.15 https://doi.org/10.1057/ejis.2010.15
Raskin, R., & Terry, H. (1988). A principal-components analysis of the Narcissistic Personality Inventory and further evidence of its construct validity. Journal of Personality and Social Psychology, 54(5), 890-902. https://doi.org/10.1037/0022-3514.54.5.890
Robert, L. P., Dennis, A. R., & Hung, Y. T. C. (2009). Individual swift trust and knowledge-based trust in face-to-face and virtual team members. Journal of Management Information Systems, 26(2), 241-279. doi:10.2753/mis0742-1222260210 https://doi.org/10.2753/MIS0742-1222260210
Robins, R. W., & Beer, J. S. (2001). Positive illusions about the self: Short-term benefits and long-term costs. Journal of Personality and Social Psychology, 80(2), 340-352. doi:10.1037//0022-3514.80.2.340 https://doi.org/10.1037/0022-3514.80.2.340
Rodrigues, S., Oliveira, J., & de Souza, J. M. (2006). Recommendation for team and virtual community formations based on competence mining. In W. Shen, K. M. Chao, Z. Lin, J. P. A. Barthes, & A. James (Eds.), Computer Supported Cooperative Work in Design II (Vol. 3865, 365-374). Berlin: Springer-Verlag Berlin.
Taylor, S. E., & Brown, J. D. (1994). Positive illusions and well being revisited – separating fact from fiction. Psychological Bulletin, 116(1), 21-27. https://doi.org/10.1037/0033-2909.116.1.21
Templeton, G. F., Luo, X., Giberson, T. R., & Campbell, N. (2012). Leader personal influences on membership decisions in moderated online social networking groups. Decision Support Systems, 54(1), 655-664. doi:10.1016/j.dss.2012.08.011 https://doi.org/10.1016/j.dss.2012.08.011
Tolmacz, R., & Mikulincer, M. (2011). The sense of entitlement in romantic relationships – scale construction, factor structure, construct validity, and its association with attachment orientations. Psychoanalytic Psychology, 28(1), 75-94. doi:10.1037/a0021479 https://doi.org/10.1037/a0021479
Twenge, J. M., & Campbell, W. K. (2009). The narcissism epidemic: Living in the age of entitlement. New York, NY: Free Press.
Wojciszke, B., Bazinska, R., & Jaworski, M. (1998). On the dominance of moral categories in impression formation. Personality and Social Psychology Bulletin, 24(12), 1251-1263. https://doi.org/10.1177/01461672982412001

Abstract

The management revue is a peer-reviewed interdisciplinary European journal publishing both qualitative and quantitative work as well as purely theoretical papers that advance the study of management, organisation and industrial relations.

The management revue publishes articles that contribute to theory from a number of disciplines, including business and public administration, organizational behavior, economics, sociology and psychology. Reviews of books relevant to management and organisation studies are a regular feature.

Special issues provide a unique and rich insight into the issue's research field.

The journal offers insights into selected research topics by providing potentially controversial perspectives, new theoretical insights, valuable empirical analyses and brief reviews of key publications. The aim is to establish the management revue as a top quality symposium journal for the international academic community.

The journal is available online via the Nomos eLibrary, ABI/INFORM Global and JSTOR. The management revue is indexed in the Web of Science™ Emerging Sources Citation Index (ESCI), Elesevier's Scopus and the RePEc services IDEAS and EconPapers.